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1 l.iiuploii," n.iltimivi- C oiint\. M;irvli»nd. 



JUNE • 1948 

IN 1929 the Hulzler Service Building was erected on the 
north side of Saratoga Street. Extending through to Mulberry, 
this building contained the Parking Garage, Warehouse, 
Delivery Station, (and subsequently the Hulzler Fountain 
Shop) and was connected with the Hutzler Store by a tunnel 
under Saratoga Street. This expansion, along with the 1928 
moves, and the purchase of electricity and steam from the 
public utility, enabled us to open Hutzler's Downstairs, "A 
Thrift Store with Hutzler Standards." This was an entirely 
new store, with a separate merchandising and buying 
organization, but with Hutzler ownership and policies. 



A Quarterly 

Volume XLIII JUNE, 1948 Number 2 

TO MARYLAND IN 1796-1797 

Wed if^|qmK4l«iyNf lAMBERT, Jr. 

LTHOUGH many American families trace their 
ancestry to some adventurous spirit who relin- 
quished European ties in order to establish himself 
in the New World, accounts of the actual voyage 
of migration, related by the forebear ^iAio ih^at It, 
are few indeed. The following sketch, written in 1829, from 
notes describing events in 1796 and 1797, supplies such a narrative 
for Me Miarylmid family — the Brevitts. In it Dr. Joseph Brevitt, a 
hospital surgeon attached to units of the British army in the West 
Indies, describes conditions existing in both the Windward and 
Le«#aiSl Idtods during the epoch following the French Revo- 
lution, his disillusionment at the prospects of advancement in 
military service, and his ultimate determination to seek his fortune 
m the recently established American R^ublic. 




the son of Joseph and Ann (Wilkes) Brevitt. The latter was 
a first cousin of John Wilkes, die liberty-loving member of Parlia- 
ment, who was so popular in colonial America. Young Brevitt 
studied medicine, enrolling as a member of the Corporation of 
Surgeons at Surgeon's Hall, London, was appointed assistant sur- 
geon in the Eleventh Regiment Light Horse and was promoted to 
surgeon on the medical staff. He was admitted as an ordinary 
member to the Medical Debating Society, Guy's Hospital, London, 
and later became an honorary member. Settling in Baltimore in 
1798, he became a practicing physician and the author of several 
medical treatises. On November 29, 1798, he married Cassandra 
Webster Woodland, daughter of Jonathan Woodland and Cas- 
sandra Webster, and gimMtee^^lim M Isaac and Margaret (Lee) 
Webster of Harford County. Of the 12 children of this marriage, 
descendants of only two are living today. Dr. Brevitt's daughter, 
Csmmi^ Arm, mtxmtit Wiiiam Ellis Qmkt, ksA tnotlier dmi^ 
ter, Eleanora Isabella, became Mrs. Thomas Mackenzie. 

This description of Brevitt's travels was handed down to Mrs. 
Mackenzie's daughter, the late Mrs. Edwin Brevitt (Katherine 
Mackenzie), a life member of the Maryland Historical Society 
and member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and 
the Society of the Ark and the Dow. At her death in 1945 it 
passed to her nephew, the Honorable Ogle Marbury, Chief Judge 
of the Maryland Court of Appeals, son of the Reverend Ogle 
Marbury jmd his wife, HeaiH»a fifevitt Kfettettzie. 

The sketch itself is contained in a small book which Judge 
Marbury has deposited with the Society. Passages of minor 
interest have been omitted below. A few changes have been 
made in punctuation, but oddities of spelling and capitalization 
remain as written. Several letters of Dr. Brevitt, dated from 
Baltimore, will be reproduced in a subsequent issue of the 
Maryland Historical Magazine. 


Being appointed in Loodoa ia ^ vaSmMts «f 119^ 2 Ho^frital Surgeon 
to the General Military Staff im *e Windwasd Mwii^ pf the West 
Indies under the command of His Ixcellency, Otfieral ^r Ralph Aber- 


crombie I was ordered immediately to fepair to Portsmouth an extensive 
City and Seaport on tlie Southern Coast of England in the County of 
Hampshire & there to join the combined fleets for the East and West 
Indies, and also the Mediterrenean fleet, which consisted altogether of 
about two hundred sail, waiting the signal for sailing, where I remained 
about six weeks before it took place. During this interval I was unem- 
ployed & yet it not being possible to ascertain the moment the Signal may 
be given for sailing, we were forbid being far from our destination. 
During my residence in this Seaport I took boarding at a private house 
. . . where I became acquainted with a French gentleman Somewhat older 
than myself and bound to the Mediterranean. We jointly (with others) 
proposed a visit to the Isle of Wight, a beautiful Island to the South, of 
about froni two to three leagues distant; this voyage we performed in 
about seveil houK, detained by a head wind & a visit to a handsome 
Vessel, which lay about midsea, & in which my friend the Frenchmen 
had engaged his passage for the Continent. Here we recreated ourselves 
two or three hours & then proceeded to our port of destination. We 
arrived & landed at " Hyde," a small village on the Island, mostly the 
.resort of fisherman. . . . Then we proceeded in the Stage Coach (which 
was waiting for us) to " Newport," the principal town on the Island. 

When we approsdied Newport, we were presented by a town with 
buildings of the most regular order, the Streets wide and well paved, 
and the Church in the middle of the town of an Antient and noble 
Structure. There were destined [detained.'] here Asian & Austrian sol- 
diers who (we were informed) were not admitted into Great Britain. 
Their uniform was course and uncouth, their manners majestic, but im- 
polished. A little mile from this town is a, village called " Carrisbrook" 
and is situated in a tA, & the church appears much more antient 
than that of Newport, & around the church yard is a hedge of incredible 
height and thickness and which appears in the utmost neatness and 
uniformity. On the left is a hill of very considerable assent and which 
is a continuation of the romantic and beautiful & on the Summit of 
which are for the most part the ruins of its antient Castle (also belong- 
ing to the Governor) who but very rarely visits it, but keeps Servants 
constantly here for its preservation. As we approached the outward 
remains of a Stone Gateway, we were advertized by a lettered board " To 
secure our horses & dogs as none were admitted." As we were on foot 
and without dogs & were all of the biped classification, this precaution 
had necessarily less of our attention, but we concluded from this that 
rational visitors were admitted & consequently we proceeded. When we 
approached a covered gateway with large Strong wood gates at the other 
extremity which we found were to be opened by a Silver key, when an 
English Shilling easily accomplished our wishes. We rang the bell & 
the wood gates wtte immetfiately unfolded and &ie interior parts of this 

^ Sir Ralph Abercrombie, or Abercromby, had in the pteceding years (1795-96) 
wrested control of St. Lucia and Trinidad froia die French. 



antient pile presented itself. Our first information was the antiquity of 
the wood gates, which had stood (it was said) five hundred years! We 
then proceeded to a grass plat which remains to this day of the same form 
on which the Earl of Arundel was beheaded! and near to which the 
present Governor has erected a small neat Chappel ; a little onward to the 
left are the apartments in which King Charles, the first (the mar(p^. 
is esteemed) was confined. It is now a complete ruin overgrown 'wlJ'Ae 
ivy. He attempted his escape through a stone bar'd window, which yet 
remains. He was afterwards more closely confined. . . . We returned in 
our way back to Newport, where we continued the succeeding Night & 
next morning proceeded onward by the stage to Cowes " ^ another 
small town four miles from Newport. This is a place of much trade in 
naval necessaries & also a harbor for the Portsmouth & Southacaftoo 
Packets. Some situations here are eligable and command an efitteH^e 
prospect of the sea & southern coast of England, but the buildings, in 
general, are mean and irregular. We embark'd from this coast on board 
the packet for Portsmouth. . . . 

I continued some little time after this in Portsmouth when I received 
my orders to embark on board the " Charlton," a vitualling transport for 
the West Indies, which I obeyed on Friday August 5, 1796 at " Spithead " 
froitti tsteftce #e immediately moved to " St. Helens " %hfcre we reifiaitied 
for a favorable wind for sailing for the West Indies. Our voyage com- 
menced on August 11th, 1796, and after a very pleasant & uninterrupted 
passage of exactly six weeks, we arrived at the Island of " Barbadoes." 
Nothing very particular occur'd during this voyage, except that we were 
"' toss'd like a quid of chew'd hay in the throat of a cow " over the 
boisterous Bay of Biso^ soob alter which the fleets destined for the East 
«t Mediterraiies*f Mt tit, ttfflch te my Satisfaction, as we appeafed tflQch 
too thick upon the water & proceeded onward towards our port of desti- 
nation, about sixty vessels in number, under the convoy of the Brunswick 
of seventy four guns, commanded by Admiral Bligh,^ who lost one man 
from on board & was drown'd. We were assail'd, or rather passed by 
an immense Shoal of potpoises, which the sailors say presage a ttetm; 
however we saw none. 

The Island of Barbadoes is a very fine picturesque country, of an 
extent of about twenty five miles by fifteen or more & is very productive 
both in Fruit & Vegetation, & its principal town is called " Bridgetown " ; 
this town hath nothing of the superb or magnificent about it, or much 
to recommend it, as to regularity or beauty. The buildings are in general 
but common & irregular. The Inhabitants are wealthy & carry on a very 
considerable commerce. There are a few tolerable Inns here for the 
accommodatfMt &f Ba^jpeUm # t^et i^ilMi^. This island and its 

' It was from Cowes that the Ark and the Dove set sail November 22, 1633, on 
fee voyage to Maryland. 

'Admiral William Bligh, in all likelihood, who as Captain of the Bounty had 
feeen set adrift by a mutinous crew in 1789 ^ile endeavoring to brii^ bread fruit 
plairts from Tahiti to fee West Indies. 


inhabitants (black and white) are perfectly English with the national 
manners & prejudices. The Barracks Hospital, Fort & Governmenthouse 
are situated on an agreeable & easy assent on the left of the town called 
" St. Anns Hill " where I walked with some other medical travellers and 
waited upon the garrison physician " Dr. Wright," an excellent character 
from North Britain. We were well received & recommended by him. 
The refreshment of grog, of some excellent old Rum for which this Island 
is famed, was very seasonable, for at this juncture I was faint & fatigued 
with my walk & the oppression of the excessive heat, which is much 
increased by the reflection from the beds of Sand with which this land 
abounds. I must not omit this Island has a capacious & excellent harbor 
in which lay much shipping & the flying fish are seen weilding [j/V} in 
flocks of thousands that I was induced to conceive they were Larks. As 
the signal for again embarking was given from the Admiral's ship ere 
we obtained the Shore, we of course concluded there was but little time 
to spare, and accordingly after taking leave of this celebrated physician & 
still more celebrated as a good man, we returned by the same way to the 
harbor, but I must not omit the recital of a most generous accost & invita- 
tion from an English inhabitant whose name, I believe was " Brown " — 
viz. " Gentlemen you are Englishmen just arrived in the fleet & axe 
fatigued & probably being strangers without the comfortable provision 
you may wish. Come to my house & pertake of my table, it is always 
open to my Countrymen." We would have refused, but he repeated his 
solicitations with such Emphasis of real old English generosity, we were 
glad to acquiesce & found ourselves as agreeably received by a happy 
family & an excellent feast & its excellency was heightened by the manner 
in which it was given & also by the unexpected manner in whish it was 
procafisd. I ffltnst tlot fflSSfiE" & description of an agreeable litftdsOme young 
widow from England who had very lately lost her husband! After some- 
what removing the vail of distress by the consolation of Sympathy, I 
found a mind unfold itself that would have done credit to the most 
honorable pretensions! I felt a growing attachment & was pleased to 
discover my pretentions were not disagreeable, but it was now time to 
depart, which I must confess I observed with a degree of reluctance if 
not emotion ; howeiwt, dtehice obliterated Ac recent imptessioii & I 
was again at Liberty. 

We again sailed in the Evening for the Island of " Martinique " & in 
our passage had a Sight [j/V} of the immence mountains of " St. Lucia " 
& next day arrived in the harbor of "Fort Royal" the first town on 
Martinque, which is a large and most Superb Island captured in the 
present war from the French. This harbor is the principal of our West 
India navy, & there lay here Admiral Harvey in the Prince of Wales, a 
Ship of three decks and ninety-eight guns. The day we arrived was the 
22nd of September, the anniversary of the King's assention to the Throne. 
The Admiral's Ship, accompanied with other Ships of Seventy four guns 
& others of lower rates, had all the Royal Standard[s} hoisted & were 
firing the usual Royal Salute of twenty ooe guns eadi, the distinguishing 


MARYLAHD nmmm^i. htmimMM 

number on any royal occasion. We were led to believe the Salute as a 
compliment to our Commodore as before at the last Island of Barbadoes; 
but. we were soon undeceiv'd by his not returning it & the information 
received afterwards. We made the Shore in the Evening at twilight. 
The inhabitants are in general French. The streets are perfectly at right 
angles. The houses lofty & regular, the windows without glass, so that 
the black gloomy appearance of the place, pictured to me a strong repre- 
sentation of Newgate Prison, or a Street in London after a great fire; 
however, the singularity of the people, which are by far the majority 
Negroes; the women dressed perfectly loose in large Bishops Sleeves; 
with their strange and unintelligable Yells of the different noctumal 
articles they were offering for sale recall'd to my memoqr that I was 
among strangers, and I felt a sort of sacred horror. . . . 

Uteiieft I imi lormed of the place led me to wish earnestly to return to 
my ship & sleep once more in peace in my well known cabin. We did so & 
revisited the town of Fort Royal in the morning. The white inhabitants 
having now made their appearance & every arrangement for the business 
of the day, had a much more pleasing appearance than the evening pre- 
ceding. After visiting most places worth our curiosity, we pass'd a 
pleasantly situated green parade on the left of the town in our way to 
Fort Edward, the name given in honor of the prince who was present at 
its capture. The Fort is for the most part dependant more on art than 
nature, being but an inconsiderable eminence raised upon dry masonary & 
commands the harbor only. . . . After examining the different interstruc- 
tures of this fortress, we proceeded to one of much more importance both 
in situation & strength, viz.. Fort Bourbon of the French, but it is now 
call[ed} Fort George in honor of the British Monarch & Nation. The 
way to this formidable fortress begins from the posterior part of ffee town , 
& is continued in a Serpentine direction for a very long way up m 
Immence elevation on the summit of which the f<Kt is est^ished. The 
road is pitched with flat stones throughout & every convenience to render 
the assent as easy as the nature of the situation will admit of. However 
the excessive heat of the climate & the length of the journey to a young 
corpulent man, unused to great exertions of activity & severe labor, was 
almost more than I could surmount, £but] which negroes of the garrison 
(who carried heavy loads of provisions, water etc.) seem to perform with 
ease & satisfaction. I was now made thankful to my maker I was not as 
one of these. " O ! Slavery what a fate is thine." 

When we had attained to nearly its summit we halted to take a view of 
the Island & expatiate on the work of nature & of art in this burning clime 
'ere we proceeded to again examine the strength of human inventions & 
labor, and these were as bountiful as they were picturesque; instead of 
wheat & other grains as in Europe, the land was in parts covered with 
extensive plantations of the sugar cane varigated by occasional pasture 
lands, the town and harbor completely displaid under our feet, and the 
picture k feiMied by the boundless & surrounding ocean, which occa- 
sionally makes inways into the land & are again varied by alternate pro- 


montaries of the land. We now proceeded to enter the Fort, which is 
so entensive & formidable as to be said to be (except Gibralter) the 
strongest under the British Crown. 

■I shall desist from the attempt at minute description of this strong for- 
tress as inadequate to the task [since] military terms &c. Fortifications is a 
Science I do not possess & refer the reader to such authors as have written 
on these subjects in particular. Suffice it then to say the different situa- 
tions seem much to have suffered by assault, gateways torn down, walls of 
immence height & thickness in part destroyed by cannonading & balls 
of considerable magnitude still remaining fixed in the situations the cannon 
had placed them, and cannon themselves dismounted and destroyed by 
ikm c^ipfeifeig fwce of the adversary & numberless other vestages of the 
ravage and destruction of war. These for the reasons already described 
when speaking of Fort Edward remain in the want of much repair. The 
immence eminences are situated in and above the clouds. Consequently 
from the principle of attraction [they] are almost constantly in light 
showers which admit of but trivial intervals. We now proceeded again to 
the town where we engaged a canoe which is a boat of one complete piece 
work'd from the solid of the trunk of a large tree by &e negroes, and we 
were row'd by six blackmen exE^jloyed for this pu^sose to St Pi^ece or 
in English, St. Peter, an<Jther town about twenty one miles distant on the 
same Island. . . . 

In the passage from Fort Royal to St. Pierre, or in English, St. Peter, 
we were presented with the views of numerous plantations in high culti- 
vation with negroe towns of considerable extent, but mean huts irregularly 
arranged in groups by the side of a declivity or in a neighboring vale. 
St. Pierre is the Miac^itl tov/m. on the Island ; it is larg*; and situated imme- 
diately oa fl*e Wach, eaA hmig in rapid descent. The superior part 
of the town is furnished with foiuitains which are giving out water con- 
tinually of most excellent quality, but stops at pleasure. The water takes 
its course through the centre of each street running out of one into 
another till finally it empties into the sea. This provision not only cools 
but keeps the town clean or otherwise the natural disposition of the 
French of which the inhabitants are composed and the situation on the 
declivity of an immense hill would drive out every English inhabitant by 
heat & filth ; this then is a providential precaution for the benefit & comfort 
of his people. The town is populous & wealthy. The people in dress & 
fashion are true Parisians: here is also a theatre in which are French 
representations every Sunday Evening, the Vespers being past, the Sabbath 
is esteem'd to be closed. There are also several good Inns & accom- 
modations for Foreigners &c. The General Military Hospital is estab- 
lished here, the Inspector General & the principal body of military medi- 
cal mm reside here, although the Cooonosander-in-Chief and the heads of 
departments of military operations have estabHAed Fort Royal to be 
Headquarters. The Harbor of this place is but very indifferent & the 
anchorage bad, consequently the harbor of Fort Royal is the established 
situation for the navy & its departments. Sohk of the buildings here are 



stupendous & majestic but appear not to pertake much of modern elegance 
& fashion. The place is remarkable for the exorbitance of its demands 
for almost every domestic necessary, viz.: a fat turkey from 10 to 12 
dollars, a good common fowl 2 dollars, a pound of butter 1 dollar (mere 
cow grease by the extreme heat of the climate) kid or lamb mutton two 
shillings pr. pound, etc. However, it is much frequented by the gay & 
fashionable & esteemed the Emporium of West India taste & elegance. 

From whence [Martinique] I proceeded to the next Island called 
" Dominique " another capture from the French at a more distant period,* 
and about twelve hours sail from Martinique. This island is remarkable 
for its numerous & immense mountains which are continued nearly through 
its extent. Its appearance whilst sailing under it is best represented or con- 
ceived by taking a sheet of writing paper crested or rolled up in the hamds, 
then drawn out a littlq & laid upon a table or [by] the inequalities of a 
rough sea in a tempest & yet the intermediate vales & sides of the moun- 
tains are very fertile even to their summits which are seen in many places to 
penetrate through and appear far above the clouds. This Island is nearly 
the size of Martinique & its principal town is called "' Roseau " though not 
so large as either of the towns of Martinique but much more modern in 
its boUdk^. It is also situated upon the Beach & its harbor has generally 
WmSf titmt^ tfeSSels at Jfflthorage. It consequently has an eXtetsive 
Cwnmerce. . . . 

From the island I sailed to the Saints of Guadeloupe, of five hours 
distant, which consists of Seven Small Islands,^ within little more than 
two leagues of Guadeloupe. These islands are of little value, except the 
harbor, which is nearly enclosed except a windward & a leward passages, 
which are formed by divisions of the Islands. The first Island is called 
the Grand or great Saint & is nearly in possession of an jfidivideal FBSIeh 
inhabitant Mons. Fidlan & its produce is little else than cotton & coffee. 
On the opposite side is St. Elett, another Smaller Island divided by the 
windward passage and on its principal Elevation is another Strong Fort 
and Blockhouse, which commands the former. This Island is totally with- 
out Inhabitants (except the Garrison) of two Regiments. There is always 
established here a seventy-four King's Ship as a Guard Ship which is 
relieved by the admiral frofffi Iferfimique every month. This post was taken 
from the French in the f&^t war . . . and as it is their only Sita«*ion 
for their naval protection it is esteemed, on this account only, a valuable 
acquisition from the Enemy. The Island of Guadeloupe being the only 
one at this time in the possession of the French & its having no good 
harbor must necessarily much distress them & interrupt privateers 
when cruizing off these coasts for our Merchant Traders. . . . 

I proceed next to a digression in going back to describe the nature of 
that professional duty that first sent me to these Islands of the Saints & 

'The island of Dominica, ceded to England by the French in 1763 had been 
recaptured by the French during the American Revolution but had been restored 
to the 9tpmit m 1783 by the Treaty <rf Paris. 

' iHx Iks des Saktes. 


then proceed to further partic«dars ■f^ilst a resident on that Garrison. As 
I arrived at St. Pierre in Martinique, I waited upon the Inspector General, 
by name Thomas Younge, a North Britton, or Scotchman, & I soon after 
found all the heads of departments where of that nation north of the 
river " Tweed " ; they are decidedly the Yankies of Britain & are preferred 
to all the best appointments. I presume it is a national policy to keep 
the northern hord in good faith & allegiance & I soon found I was unfor- 
tunate to be born too far South of the river of demarkation, and all my 
Efforts at further promotion futile & unavailing. The inspector ask'd of me 
" What particular Service I was appointed? " I answered to the Medical 
Staff & General Hospital on the West India station under the Command 
of General Sir Ralph Abercrombie, another English Yankee. I was 
informed Sir Ralph commanded the entire Station. " Was there no par- 
ticular duty allotted to my service? " I answered None! but as he was the 
head or officer commanding of the medical department on that station & 
the appointment I presumed rested with him. " Weil Sir ' is there any 
particular station I would prefer? I answered — all places were to me 
alike, as I was an entire Stranger, where my Services were most needed 
that was the station to send me to — He acknowledged my condescention, 
desired me to take care of myself till an appointeeat selected for tm, 
when I should be duly apprized. I took my leatt ift Aue fdrrfi 8t returfied 
to my Tavern which was kept by a great old fat mulatto woman in the 
town of S. Pierre. I had nothing to do but to eat, drink, sleep, walk, & 
practice of the Billiard Tables. My pr diem was going on & I was no 
way anxious or concerned & in this situation glided away five or six wedcs. 
When I received my Orders to repair to the Saints of Guadeloupe. ... I 
pfoceeded accordingly in a water sloop (i. e.) carrying water & was three 
or four days on our passage. I expert^ we sliOBiS bave been tsAreft as 
the sloop was an old dull sailor — ^however, we arrived safe at our port of 
destination & I commenced my duties accordingly. I found here a Sur- 
geon's Mate belonging to the forty-fifth, a little contemptible Irishman, 
without manners & without professional Education. He offered me some 
Irish insolence & declared that ihey had sent him a mate, but I soon con- 
vinced him he had a Superior; as the regiment was without a Surgeon I 
was sent for a season to fill that staticHi & he was my mtte £or the time 
being & if he did a@t obey my orders that I should jwseeed with him 
accordingly. I heard no' more of it afterwards. His name Was Anthony 
Connolly, about five feet four. The other Regiment, viz. the thirty-eighth 
had a surgeon named Constable, a rough honest good sort of a fellow, 
who spoke & read the french language like a Native. He also was a 
native of Ireland. . . . On the island we occupied were many families 
& refugees of GuaililWfNe which our officers occasionally visited in a 
friendly chit chat m^, wimm wm m 4Kiciefit couple of the 

names of Rabaiss. "Hiey had a d&a^ttet, hx^ course & advanced, there 
was also a Niece named MadamJle Le Clare who was the very re- 
verse of the daughter. She was handsome, vivacious, genteel with a 
nrind well cultivated. I was introduced iato the family, but unfortu- 



nately for me, I possessed not a word of French nor they any more 
Enghsh, so that anything hke a familiar intercourse was irrevocably cut 
off; however the natural and fascinating manners of a well bred french 
woman would alone induce her to pay me in my deprived situation more 
particular attention. She express'd a widi that I could pertake of the 
conversation she particularly wished this, I obtained possession of this 
sentiment by our mutual friend. Dr. Constable. I repeated my visits 
several times in this way, for I found if we were denied verbal interchange 
of sentiments, there is a secret Language understood " by Saint, by Savage 
Mid by Sage " called sympathy, unison of souls or something else indis- 
cribable. ... In some of my after visits when we were bandying over oar 
difficulties, a quick thought assailed her, she escaped and brought for#itKl 
a " Fren^ Iga^sk & English Ftench " dictionary with whkh we 
progressed from words to sentences, from sentences to lines & so on 
progressively. . . . Old Rabais£s] began to impress marriage was bon for 
me & suppose I should marry one french laoy. I should speak french 
directly, that I had " Bon pronunciation." — O! I answered, how should I 
address a french lady without possessing her language? O! this is nothing, 
the french lady understand the Signal, the Signal this was enough. Mar- 
riage <t tjus time did mt amt sb^ convenience in a ^tmge land or 
Madamelle Le'Qare was no dt^kaMe Selecticm. Vateixm IMs ^^xmkm^ 
in which perhaps I am too much interested & diereby led kito fulsome 
Egotism. I shall proceed with my subject. 

Soon after this period I returned to Martinique on business where from 
disappointment I left the service. I proceeded from Fort Royal at St. 
Pierres to engage a passage to the United States in the American fleet, 
but when I arrived the fleet had sailed: but just at this period the British 
padcet caflie vp & boiaid to MSflifl of Afttigaa in whidi I todk a 
passage, for which I paid sixteen dollars. Knowing the fleet would touch 
at Antigua, we sailed under the convoy of a sloop of war & had a retained 
passage of four or five days in which we sailed close under the Lee of 
Guadeloupe which was a nearer view of this Superb Island than I had 
yet had. 

Guadeloupe, this most superb and invaluable Island! I am sorry it is 
not in my power to aSofd an a^^fKle isie^i^Mr &f, k beiag itt this time 
is j^ommmm of the enemy. . . . Here was at anchor at this place three 
first rate forty four gun frigates belonging to France which the British 
were anxious in any way to obtain possession «(f. . . . Wtom ^is I pass'd 
on to Antigua of about fourteen hours sail. . . . 

Antigua is a name descriptive also of the nature of the Island & is 
derived from the Spanish & signifies a want of water. This is totally 
widiout fresh springs & consequently in dry seasons the Inhabitants are 
very much distress'd for fresh water, which is sometimes sold at the 
incredible price of one shilling per pailfsfl ftoHi St«3i people as have pre- 
served it in Cisterns. As you approach this island it appears on the 
southern side very mountainous, lliere is a considerable inlet of the sea 
which forms an excellent harbor. The first angle of the land has on 
its summit a strong fortress which defends the mouth of the harbor and 


further on is a second considerable fort on a promontary of the land & 
still further on is a second promontary called from its supposed resem- 
blance " Rat Island," on the summit of which are extensive barracks & 
at the extremity is situated the principal town called " St. Johns." It is a 
large town with streets at right angles & a large court-house of public 
offices. This is also an excellent Episcopal Church and organ on a con- 
siderable eminence near the centre of the town & at the superior part are 
extensive Barracks for one thousand soldiery. This Island is divided into 
three districts called the Windward, the Pope's Head & the Body. The 
northern extreme of the island is horizontal and consequently much more 
p*0AK^Yfe ^tim the nxm mountainous. There is also upon this Island 
anclther siMall towft ea&ii " Pareham " & also {an} English harbor which 
is for the most pal* lAiilsiled by Ship Carpenters and other artists in 
shipping. It is strange that this Island & the Saints are so perfectly 
destitute of fresh water whilst those on eajdl iMe it at a anall distance 
are so abundantly supplied with the best. 

On my landing on this Island and arrival in the town of St. Johns, I 
found the American fleet had been there & again departed, so that I had 
thf(5?i^ myself out of pay & was landed in an Island in Vhidi I was an 
entire stranger, alike, Unknowing & unknown." No one I presume will 
envy me my situation at this period which I learnt I should not be able to 
escape out of it for several months or during the hurricane season of 
which this was about the commencement, but I still had resourses! I 
calculated I could make my money hold out, but I should have nothing 
left for my passage to the United States, but I considered this to be an 
]^^k Mmed # J&k fmij^ & spoke my own ha^^ge & I mmt 
do someAfeg t© at leaft ieftiy my expenses if not mete. The next 
consideration was — ^What should that be? I concluded in a town like 
St. Johns, there must be medical men & some one of them may want 
an assistant & if I should fail in this, I would next go amongst the 
merchants, where I may get some employ with my pen, & if I should 
fail in this also, I will go to the Wharf & roll Barrels. I may even at this 
pay my expenses & have what isems^ I possess'd without diminution which 
was all I eared for[.] These prelitnianffes being settled in my mm mind, 
I became weary & slept well through tlie" Sttcceeding night & in the morn- 
ing proceeded agreeably to my plan & soon found " Mr. Muir " (a North 
Britton) & a practitioner, but he was not in want of such a Character as I 
was: Conceive me, at the period in a British staff uniform of a flaming 
red! But he politely informed me of another gentleman in the town 
of the name of Crow " who did want such a person being lately deprived 
of a valuable young man by death of the prevailing disease of the cli- 
mate (bilious). I immediate^ fflftde my way to this gentleman, who I 
found was as ready to receive me, as I was him. I presented him my 
credentials & told him my situation honestly & unvarnished, that I was 
entirely a stranger & had no one to say who, or what I was, therefore I 
should expect no trust, till I had proved it; that I wished merely to clear 
my oeconomical expenses, as I wished to get out of the Islands. There 


"■ ^ 

never was a poor wretch that had a much more contemptible opinion of 
himself than I had at this period! O! what a virtue is humility, this to 
me proved it beyond controversy. When I was answered by my Employer 
in this way, Ah! Sir, you are of much more consequence here than you 
have yoursdf any conception of! I have lately lost a young man of your 
description for whose services I have been much distress'd & think myself 
fortunate in soon meeting with another, which is a circumstance may not 
again occur in seven years of a medical assistant regularly and fully edu- 
cated. I will give you much more than you would have any conception 
of requesting & instantly offered me unasked such terms, as the half 
would have abundantly satisfied me, but I must engage for twelve months ! 
"iim was the difficulty I wished to escape but these were his twiBs wWch 
I may take or leave. They were what he gave the last young man whom 
he had buried. The generous magnanimity of the man, to an entire 
stranger, so completely in his power, settled my determination to close 
with him on his own terms which I did accordingly & immediately set in 
to my duties, which was for the most part plantation practice divided into 
three routes called " The Popes Head," " The Body " & " the Windward," 
liiteig one every day, so that each plantation was regufaaif visitted twice 
every week. He would ride one day & I stay at home to compound medi- 
cines: The next day I went out & he at home, and so on alternately to end 
©f the chapter. 

I continued in this situation about two months with perfect satisfaction 
to my employer, and to myself, when an unfortunate circumstance occur'd, 
which radier jarr'd the harmony of our association & set me at liberty 
just in right time for my departure from the islands. One day I mis 
at home very actively employed in the office with my old m^me mm to 
assist, which was a little space from the dwelling. Dr. Crow's wife, a 
West India native & daughter of the late practitioner, came to see me & 
requested of me, "If there were any messages for Mr. Crow?" I 
answered there were & I would be very careful to present them to him as 
soon as he arrived : when she turned upon her heel in all the haughtiness 
of india ptide & march'd stately off as she had come, her silks rustling 
like a high wind. I had no conception that I had done any mischief or 
committed any error. In the evening he returned ft was informed that I 
had refused to deliver to her the messages. He came to me swelling with 
rage & told me I had insulted his wife, & u/e must part, which he 
repeated. I told him, it was well, but that I could not understand him. 
I possess'd no disposition to insult any female much less his wife & if I 
had unfortunately done so, it was quite unintentional & that I was ready to 
make any reasonable apology in my power, but that I thought either he 
had been imposed upon, or that he imposed upon me. Now Sir, expfean ! 
when he told me I refused to deliver the messages to Mrs. Crow ! "As this 
is your accusation the explication now reverts to me, in the first place I 
deny that she ever ask'd me for the messages, but only, " if there were 
any messages.^ ' or I would have cheerfully given them to her. This being 
the case I could not possibly have refused what I was not adc'd for. You 

m^mu m -mtMmmk'- imt lllt mm ^ Maryland 93 

never instructed me that I siMMM dispose of them & I never for 
once conceived that medical messages belong'd to a woman! However, 
if it is your mode of procedure I shall observe it in future." This abated 
the storm & it blew over, as a thing forgotten, but I kept my determina- 
tion to myself, viz., that he had brcrice our ccKitract & that I was at liberty 
& that I would profit by it as socMi ns dtcumstances suited my ^vafftM9f> 
to do. 

From this period I kept a strict lookout upon the wharf & during this 
interval a more strict attention to the duties of my profession, and in a 
few weeks I descried a large old brig with the stripes flying upon her. I 
got a boat & push'd directly on board. Captain Card, the master on Board, 
he {j/V] observed me in my red coat & was apprehensive. I was some 
custom house officer coming to overhaul him; however, when I got cui 
board & declared my intentions of taking a passage with him t&4te UNil«^ 
States, he was glad to find the tlii||§ siM<a& im(«St* w^sim^ fdkiwiiig 
dialogue took place between us — 

O. Where are you from? 
A. From Alexandria, Virginia. 
Q. What was your cargo 
A. White Oak Staves. 
Q. Where are you bound ? 
A. To Norfolk, Virginia. 
Q. What is your return cargo.'' 
A. Ballast. 

Q. What is your price to take me? 
A. Forty dollars.— Agreed ! 
Q. When do you expect to sail? 
A. In about ten days. 

These preliminaries being settled, I return'd again to my duties & in 
about three days before sailing I informed my employer of my procedure 
when he reminded me of out contract for a year. I told him I was sensible 
of it & would have fulfil'd it, however disagreeable to my self, but it had 
been broken on his part. . . . He desired me " to think no more of it, it 
was satisfactorily explained and done away " and he would be very much 
distress'd for my services. I knew this as well as he did & told him I had 
engaged my passage & my baggage & provisions were on board. . . . He 
was an honorable man and a gentleman. When he found all his intreaties 
to be unavailable, he took me into his house, calculated the time I had been 
with him of about three months and paid me (at the conditions he had 
agreed to) every cent that was my due. I took a respectful farewell of 
him and his family &. commenced my voyage in the latter end of Novem- 
ber, 1797, & left the Island of Antigua with more money in my posses- 
sion than I had when I first came to it. If the hand of Providence is 
not acknowledged in this adventure, it cap ffli% fie ^ fee c^aiimed 
infidel ! 

The mtskmy al ^ g^kem^ <«M he cheriibed by'iAe with 





Our Voyage to the United Strtes was of about twelve days, having 
favorable winds all the way, in which nothing very remarkable occurred, 
except a vessel we met with near this coast which we were apprehensive 
was a french privateer, however, it proved of the United States outward 
bound and run foul of us in which it suffered some damages: gave us a 
few curses as he left us and passed on his way. 

There was no one to apprehend any thing from this vessel but myself, 
for had it been a french privateer and they had discovered me to be 
English, I may have yet visited Guadeloupe to my sorrow. A few days 
after having passed this vessel we made the land of this continent & soon 
after were assailed by the vessels of the Pilots running or sailing about in 
every direction & having a pilot on board, we pursued our course to the 
ci|>es of Vi^tfiia, -Meh we soon made and pass'd & came into Hampton 
lot* -wtee our iriSSd was ftm aground. There lay here nms^mS vessels 
of different descriptions & amongst the rest a british frigate called " The 
Topaz," a long black snake of a vessel of french build. She sent out her 
boat & took us on board the frigate where I slept two nights associated 
with the officers of the gun room & was treated very politely after which 
1 proceeded to the town of Norfolk, in Virginia, it being now near the 
close of the year 1797 & intensely cold, whidi Ipresume was more severe 
to me having jmt c&me from the Tropics. Tne Chesapeake Bay was 
frescQ ^ so (ktt m padcet would presume to rttefs^ a passage to Bal- 
timbre and I was necessarilly detained there ibcrtit teti days, in which 
period occur'd the Christmas hollidays. 

The town of Norfolk is low, dirty, and if that was a Specimen of an 
American City, I took the prospect as a very poor one as it is much 
inferior to some I had been in in the West India Islands, without a com- 

rrlsoa 1?ith Europe ; however, I may expect fairer prospects in Baltimore, 
was not disappointed. The oysters I got there exceeded all I ever 
tasted before or afterwards and the display of Turkeys for the Christmas 
excelled my most Sanguine conceptions. They came in cartbody loads 
picked & ready for the spit. The wood fires burning upon the Hearths 
was to me a new scene, but I did not like them so well as the coal fires 
of Europe in raised Grates, but use has since reconciled them & even 
exalted them to my preference. 

After this in the commencement of the New Year 1798 a packet 
schooner dared to proceed in which I took passage to pay ten dollars to 
Baltimore. We were several days in working up the Bay in a zigzag way 
wherever we could discover an opening in the Ice, suffering much from 
anxiety & from cold. We had a full view of the rivers of the Potomac & 
the Patuxent &c, and at last we were put on shore two miles short of 
Annapolis, to find our way onward in the best way we could, for the 
packet could go no higher up though we paid to Baltimore. There was 
in company an elderly gentleman who came in another vessel from the 
West indies of the name of " Rainey," also Paul Hartman, & Joe Jacobs, 
Ms associate, both Jews, and William Harris, a carpenter & myself, all 
for Baltimore. We hired an Ox-Cart on ^hich ^e placed out Baggage 
walking by its side and thus like a set of strolling gypsies we entered the 


metropolis of Maryland & put up at Wests', at the sign of the Annapohs 
Packet. Here was a large company assembled, for the Assembly was in 
Session & old Cockey Dye,* widi his Blackman Friday, was a conspicious 
character and paid particular attention to me, as he soon found I was an 
Englishman but lately from there & if ever I saw him in Baltimore I 
WOTiId not omit making myself known to him, he being (as I was 
informed) in favor of English politics, little suspecting than {then] of the 
republican blood of " Wilkes & Liberty " circulated in my veins ; ' how- 
ever, I never saw him afterwards. 

I visited the State house & saw the Assembly in Session where old Long 
Bob Long 8 was upon the carpet with a case that had stood about sixty 
years upon the tapis, and the Orator observed It deserved some respect 
if it was only for its antiquity." I spent two nights in this city, saw 
most things worth seeing, when I proceeded on the public stage to Bal- 
timore, where after a wet & disagreeable journey, I arrived s«£e rt tiie 
Indian Queen Tavern, kept by William Evans, after which 1 Soon found 
my only brother, the late John Brevitt,® who came to this country nearly 
twenty years before, in the time of the Revolutionary struggle for Inde- 
pendence which it happily obtained, when I was but a small boy of about 
ten years of age, not having seen him since I was nine years and six 
months old, so tiiat we cotf mdii %gMt' Iwi «^ fmiMe ra^dte^kHn of 
each other. 

Joseph Brevitt 


' Thomas Cockey Deye, a resident of Baltimore County, was a member of the 
Lower House as early as 1761, and frequently thereafter. He also served in the 
Convention of 1776 which framed the State Constitution and after the Revolution 
was chosen Speaker of the House. He died May 7, 1807. 

' John Wilkes, English political reformer, championed a program of parliamentary 
reform, fought to safeguard individual liberty against ministerial autocracy, and 
became an outspoken defender of colonial rights during the American Revolution. 
The writer's relationship to Wilkes has beea oaetitioned ia iie iutoiivction. 

'Not yet identified. 

" }eim Utevkt %fved m lieutenant in the First Maryland Regiment from 1780. 
He amrkA ^tortfy atftstwafd Mary Swope. His business is given in the directories 
as a " tobacco marmfactoiy." He died July 24, 1824, at the age of 64. Dr. 
Joseph Brevitt died April 15, 1839. 


By John H. Scarff 

Hampton," for more than a century and a half the home of 
the Ridgely Family, this year passes to the Nation. The Avalon 
Tea^, founded by Mrs. MM Mellon Bruce, has purchased the 
house and some forty acres of land around it. With funds for 
its rehabilitation and for the acquisition of a part of the original 
furniture, it has been given to the Federal Government. Mr. 
and Mrs. John Ridgely, the former owners, have generously pre- 
sented the pictures now hanging there and almost all the remain- 
ing family portraits. " Hampt^ " in ttic fate*e will be adminis- 
tered as a Museum Building by the Department of the Interior 
through the National Park Service, with The Society for the 
Iftreservatitm Mai^^lsnd Antiquities acting as Cuito^an. It is 
expected that during t^ ^ing of 1949 it will be opened to the 

The first Ridgely of the Hamptcm line to immigrate to Mary- 
land (it is thought from Lincolnshire)^ was Robert. He was an 
attomey-at-law and lived on St. Inigo's Creek in St. Mary's County 
where he died in 1681. Among his sons was the first of the many 
Ridgelys named Charles. He is known as the " Planter " and it is 
recorded that he died in Anne Arundel County in 1705. It was 
during the time of his son, Charles,* that the family moved to 
Baltimore County, first to a location on a cove of the Middle 
Branch of the Patapsco River above Whetstone Point, known 
as " Ridgely 's Hollow";* thence eventually to what is now 
" Mmm^n." 

^ The name which he gave to one of the several extensive tracts of land, which 
he took up, seems to indicate a Lincolnshire origin, but the family arms are said 
to imply some other county as the English home erf the family. 

"Colonel Charles Ridgely (d. 1772). 

"Throi^h hk aaanstge with Radiel 'Howttfd, da«cbter of John Mowstfd, Jr., 


Cmtrtegy of Prick Art Reference Library 

Courtesy of Prick Art Reference Library 

Hall, " Hampton, Looking South 
* Photo 1948 by National Park Service 


On the 28th of September, 1695, a tract of land consisting of 
1500 acres in Baltimore County was taken up by Col. Henry 
Darnall, a member of Lord Baltimore's Council.* This land was 
considerably north of tidewater, above the edge of the settlements, 
in what was then the wilderness. He called it " Northampton." 
In 1695 Col Darnall's daughter Anne married Clement Hill, who 
the following year was appointed surveyor-general of the Western 
Shore. Upon the death of Henry Darnall in 1711 "Northamp- 
ton " descended to the Hills, and on the 2nd of April, 1745, Anne 
Hill of Prince George's County, widow, together with her sons 
Clement and Henry, conveyed the entire tract of 1500 acres to 
Charles Kidgely of Baltimore County, " Merchant," for a con- 
sideration of six bi^Snd pounds sterling." That was the begin- 
ning of " Hampton," the pattkomkl e^stte d <^ MHi^if 

The Hampton Mansion stands iiei^#ie efettfefof the four sided 

piece of land that was " Northampton." Two adjoining pieces 
also came into possession of the Ridgelys, namely; " Hampton 
Cmit " • md *' '©8*hampton," and by 1750 Charles Ridgely had 
taken up or purchased altogether 26 parcels in Baltimore County, 
aggregating over 7,000 acres. These parcels were not all con- 
tiguoT**, ta^ they included areas as distant as the present Roland 
Park, Guilford and Blythewood ^ and a tract " Huntington " that 
extended from University Parkway as far south as Lafayette 
AfmM at 0«irtes and gave miM ib Huntington 


Oiarles Ridgely acquired '" Howard's Timber Neck," which was taken up by her 
grandfather Howard in 1667. Charles Ridgely resurveyed it and called it 
" Ridgely's Delight." This plantation lay on Ridgely's Cove or Hollow, between 
"Mount Clare" and " Lunn's Lot," extending, irregularly, north to Mulberiy 
Street, east to Hanover, and «iefaMBa|g CetoMhilt ■ afc»« l lte- ^»r''ig|gW>^li ^#^ 
ington Boulevard). 

* Rent Roll, Baltimore County, Calvert Paper 883 f. 205. 

' Land Records of Baltimore County, Liber T. B. No. D., f. 94. 

'"Hampton Court" was acquired in 1746. (Land Records of Baltimore County 
Liber T. D. No. E, f. 166). 

' In one contiguous estate of twelve hundred acres were: " Ridgely's Whim," 
which included all of the present " Blythewood " and all of Roland Park east of 
Roland Avenue, and " Job's Addition," which embraced the whole of '" Home- 
land." Parcels of this property remained in the hands of descendants of Charles 
Ridgely until well within the second half of the past century. Descendants, the 
Fenwicks, were buried in the family burying ground at " Woodlawn," now a part 
of Roland Park. Other descendants, the McCormicks, lived at " Hebron " until 
the fOm-^mgiml^-, af " Kiddy's Whim," is now the site of Saint 


" Northampton," when it was laid out was a part of the wilder- 
ness, although several tracts had been taken up on the Great Falls 
of the Gunpowder River in the neighborhood as early as 1683.* 
There is every reason to believe that settlements did not begin to 
advance into the back country or forests above the heads of the 
tidal estuaries in Baltimore County before 1699-'' Before that 
time it was inhabited by a few squatters or hunters, and it would 
seem that one of these was a man named Andrew Peterson." 
Among the land papers of Barrister Carroll of " Mt. Clare " is a 
book of copies of old land certificates, including that of " North- 
hampton," in which is mentioned a stream emptying into the 
Great Falls of Gunpowder River called " Andrew Peterson's 
Run." " Later, it was known simply as Peterson's Run, and, still 
later, as Long Quarter Branch. Its lower reaches are today 
covered by the waters of Loch Raven. Its principal source is 
on the present Goucher College property, formerly known as 
" Epsom," which is largely a part of Northhampton." In 1746, 
when Charles Ridgely had a land commission determine the 
bounds of " Northhampton," which he had purchased the jmi 
before, several depcments testified that it was otherwise lojown as 
" Peterson's." " 

It is probable that when this estate was in the possesion of 
Henry Darnall and later of the Hills, many of its acres were 
cleared and put under cultivation and already useful buildings and 
other appurtenances of what was then called a " quarter " existed. 
The price paid would indicate this. The old " Farm House " 
occupied by Charles Ridgely during the building of the Mansion 

' "' Saint Denis " and " Sergents Hall," each 500 acres, which were later (1732) 
resurveyed into one tract for Daniel Dulany, and called " Dulany's Park." 

"This statement is made on the authority of Mr. William B. Marye, who has 
m«de a ttii# of the subject. 

" He meA 2^ut 1692, in which year an inventory of his small estate is entered 
in the court proceedings of Baltmore County, March Court. Among his few 
belongings were several which might properly have beloiiiged to a hunter and back- 
woodsman, namely, seven raw deer skins; one gun; a pair of bullet moulds, and a 
horse " in the woods dubious to be got." 

^^This manuscript is endorsed " 1766" and is described as a "Collection of 
Land Certificates chiefly in Baltimore & Anne Arundel Counties To which is added 
a List of Postponed certificates from the year 1733 to 1734." Also entered therein 
is Captain Richard Smith's certificate for " The Valley of Jehosophat," dated Sep- 
tember 2, l695 (and therefore earlier than "Northampton") which calls for 
" Andrew Peterson's branch." This land includes the southern part of Dulany's 

'•^ Baltimore County Court Proceedings, Land Commissions, Liber H. W. S. 
No. 4, f. 140 et seq. 

" HAM^IQN," .^AUamm iCOWWrSf, MARYLAND 99 

was, in all likelihood, the overseer's house on the quarter." As 
tobacco was raised on it in these days, it is more correct to speak 
of it as a " plantatk*i " -mA not a " farm." 

The next important date in the long history of " Hampton " is 
November 1st, 1760, for on that day " Charles Eidgely of Balti- 
more County, Merchant," conveyed to his son Charfes, fte 
Younger, styled " Mariner," some 2000 acres of land, consisting 
of part of " Northampton," " Hampton Court," " Oakhampton " 
«id " Stotire's Adventure," lying together m oac tract.** This 
Charles, the Mariner," was the builder of the Hampton Mansion. 

That same year Col. Charles Ridgely (otherwise styled " Senior " 
or " Merchant ") got possession of 100 acres lying nordi of 
" Northhampton " on Peterson's Run for the purpose of erect- 
ing thereon an iron works to be called " Northhampton Works." " 
The company was organized October 8, 1761, and it consisted of 
Charles Ridgely, his sons John and Charles." John died in 1771 
surviving by one year his infant son John. These iron works 
were to become a most important possession of the Ridgelys, for 
in 1797, when General Ridgely was visited at " Hampton " by 
Francis Parkinson, the historian, he recorded that General Ridgely 
" has very extensive iron works.^"^ . . . He is a very genteel man 
and is said to keep the best table in America." Parkinson further 
said that the General bred race horses and had a well cultivated 
farm (the cultivation of tobacco had given place by that time to 

*'Late in the 1760's or early in the 1770's the landowners of Baltimore County 
gave up the planting of tobacco and began the cultivation of wheat sod c&ta. 

^' Land Records of Baltimore County, Liber B., No. H, f. 420. 
A copy of his writ of ad quod damnum will be found in the above mentioned 
" Collection of Land Certificates," which belonged to Barrister Carroll. It is dated 
February 28, 1760. The 100 acres so condemned was part of " Refuge " and lay 
on Pot Spring Run (a branch of Peterson's Run or Long Quarter Branch). 

^'The contract is mentioned in a deed from Colonel Charles Ridgely's executors 
to Charles Ridgely, Jr., executed in the year 1772, shortly after the death of the 
former, and conveying to the grantee a one-third interest in the Northampton 
works and lands. (Lat*i WmmA of Baltimore County, Libue A. L. li^. ^ 
495 et sea.) U'. 

" In addition to his interest in the Northampton furnace, Chueles Ctrqwi M^m^ 
owned the forges long known as Ridgely's Forges, which stood oft the wesf side df 
the Great Falls of Gunpowder River, near the (old) Philadelphia Road, and had 
formerly been known as the Nottingham Iron Works. These works, together with 
more than five thousand acres of land, were purchased by General Ridgely, in 1796, 
• from Alexander Hanson, Trustee for the Sale of Confiscated British Property. (Land 
Records of Baltimore County, Liber W. G. No. H. W., f. 642 et seq.) Out of this 
relatively vast tract of land, which was mostly in woods and devoted to charcoal 
burning, was carved the White Marsh Estate, 1700 acres, which Governor Ridgely 
left to his s«R, Qmad hilmmi Sidgely, and which remained intact and in the pos- 
session of the ivtt^'s d^endMMs wtil a little more than a decade ago. 



corn and wheat) " better than most others in the country, the 
expense of which was largely paid for by the iron works," for 
'" the cultivation of one's own land would make any man poor." 
Another item of interest he recorded at this time was that the 
roads from " Hampton " to Baltimore were so ba4 " that it is a 
day's work in winter for a team." " * 

Col. Charles Ridgely died in 1772, and his will ratified the deed 
of gift of the year 1760 of 2000 aaes to his son, and to his grand- 
son John Robert Holliday he left that portion of " North- 
hampton " not already deeded to his son Charles.^® This bequest 
was the beginning of the estate " Epsom " ^° lying adjoining and 
very close, south of the Hampton Mansion. The line between 
was first established by this deed of gift of 1760. 

Charles Ridgely, the Builder, died in 1790, but six months 
after the completion of the house. In his will dated 7 April, 
1787,^^ he makes the following bequest to his wife who was 
Rebecca, daughter of Caleb Dorsey of " Belmont ": "I give and 
bequeath unto my beloved wife, Rebecca Ridgely, during her 
natural Life, the Dwelling wherein I now reside togeth«f wi#i 
eight acres of Land thereto adjoining for a garden with as many 
outhouses as she may think necessary for her convenience or if 
she should prefer the new house I am now buil^ag, I feiw it- at 
her option to Choose the same." He directs his nephew (for he 
had no children), Charles Ridgely Carnan, to provide a stable 
for his said wife, large enough for six horses and cows. To his 
wife he left his silver plate for life. To his nephew, Charles 
Ridgely Carnan, he left divers lands, including all the land which 
his father gave him by indenture dated t Mmsftber 1760, 
" whereon I now reside " except the use of the dwelling house 
and eight aaes reserved for his wife, the whole consisting of 
" NorflriwsBptcBi " and divers adjacent tracts and his interest in 
the Northampton Furnance which he had originally inherited from 
his father. A tax list of Back and Middle River Upper Hundreds, 
Baltimore County, oi 17^ eS^HwaiiSlRidgely of Hamptcm " 

A Tour in America, by Richard Parkinson (London, 1805), I, 73 et sea 
" Wills, Baltimore County, Liber 3, f. 201. The will is dated April 1, 1772. 
*" John Robert Holliday, the son of Robert Holliday, for whom Holliday Street 
in Baltimore was named, died in 1801. In his will he left " Epsom " and other 
lands to his son, Harry G. Holliday. In the last century " Epsom " was the prop- 
erty of a branch of the Chew family. The will of J. R. Holliday is recorded in 
Lber 6, at folio 270. 

" Baltimore County Wills, Liber 6, f . 450. 

" HAMPTON," ^mmmmm-mm^^, MmxiMm loi 

(sic) with 92 slaves and scattered tracts of land.^^ It is impos- 
sible to say how many acres were then a part of " Hampton " 
proper. •• TTie mansion is thereia described: " One stcteeri^elling 
house, 2 stories, 56 by 80 feet, two wings to do. 23 by 25 feet 
each." On Griffith's Map of Maryland, 1794, we see the words 
" Hampton Hall " on the site o£ the mansion, and, a s^Wftt 
tance north of it on Peterson's Run, a sign indicating an iron 
furnace, noted as " Northampton." The site of the old furnace 
is now under the waters of Loch Raven. 

Charles Ridgely Carnan, who had so handsomely benefited by 
the will of his uncle, by act of the State Legislature in 1790, to 
conform to a condition therein imposed, changed his name I© 
Charles Carnan Ridgely, and assumed the Ridgely arms. He was 
usually known as General Ridgely and from 1816 to 1819 he was 
Governor of Maryland. Strangely enough he married the youngest 
sister, Priscilla, of his uncle's wife and all the later Ridgelys of 
Hampton are descended from them. Their eldest son Charles, 
born August 26, 1783, who died before his father, had one son 
who died less than three months after he was born. The second 
son of Charles and Priscilla, John, inherited. He was the first 
child born at " Hampton " January 9, 1790. The line of inheri- 
tance of " Hampton " from the llAdstIi: 

Charles (Ridgely (1733-179») Iftsi^ 1760 Rfebecca DMsey (1739-1812) 

Charles Ridgely 

Carnan (1772-1828) " 1782 Priscilla Dorsey (1762-1814) 
(Charles) (1783-1819) " 1809 Maria Campbell (178 -1853) 
(John) (1819-1820) 
John Ridgely 

CarnanI (1790-1867) " 1812 Prudence Gough Carroll (1795-1822) 

1828 Eliza Ridgely (1803-1867) 
Charles Ridgely (1830-1872) " 1851 Margaretta Sophia Howard (1824-1904) 
John Ridgely (1851-1938) " 1873 Helen Stewart (1854-1929) 
John Ridgely (1882- ) " 1907 Louise Humrichouse (1883-1934) 


The building of the mansion was commenced by Charles in 
1783 while he and Rebecca still dwelt in the " Farm House." The 
dia^f «tf Rebecca contains madei Jite @i ^amhei 8, 1788: 

This tax list may be seen at the Maryland Historical Society. According to it, 
Charles Ridgely's land holdings in that hundred amounted to something over 3500 
acres, exclusive of his interest in the furnace lands. Of these 3500 acres not less 
than two thousand acres were included in " Hampton." At the same time he 
owned more than five thousand acres at the Nottingham Forges (Ridgely's Forges). 
His executors divided more than 2500 acres in and about Dulany's Valley among 
ins h^fs. it is a»£^ to stf tbtt he di«d |>o»ses««d of more than tea thou«ftad 
acres m B^tiiraore Cseett^ sikme. 


uA9.Yhm» Mmsmi^:M> MAm^^i^ 

" Came to the Large New Building, found a desire in my heart 
to be more Devoted to the Lord, than I had ever Shown myself 
to the worW f© ht. Went to prayers with the family." The house 
was not completely furnkhed wh^, on January 9th, 1790, the 
son of Charles Ridgely Caiaan was born there, and the child 
was born in the nursery." Six montlis later Charles the Builder 
died. Rebecca did not wish to live in the " Farm House " sur- 
rounded by its eight acres bequeathed her in the will of her hus- 
band and neMier did j^ Iiteifl the Large New Building in -wiiich 
her husband had died. She accepted "" Auburn " near by from 
her nephew and brother-in-law and lived there till she died in 
1812. The nephew very soon after the Jeaflft of his uncle began 
the construction of the gardens at " Hampton." 

It is to be regretted that we have no inventory of the library of 
Charles, the Builder. Architects were rare in those days and the 
designs of fine houses were usually taken from books in the 
libraries of the owners, and carried out by master builders. Family 
papers only record the name of the carpenter, one Jehu Howell, 
who received the sum of £3482, s 13, dSVi, no inconsiderable 
sum, for the carpentry and woodwork of the house. It is strange 
that accounts are meticuously kept for this amount but there is 
no record that wotiM complete the costs. It is recorded that Jdiu 
Howell resided in one of the wings as early as 1784. 

One is tempted to speculate on what kind of a man this Charles 
the Builder was. His portrait by John Hesselius that hangs in 
the Dining Room shows a low forehead, a long acquisitive nose, 
and the lower part of a face and a figure of a man accustomed to 
good living. It would seem likely that he was not much in sym- 
pathy with his wife's conversion to Methodism, nor her preoccupa- 
tion, as evidenced by her diary, with the state of her soul. The 
building period coincided with that which produced the Declara- 
tion of Independence and the Constitution of the United States, 
but family tradition has it that he was neither pleased with the 
ciiM^ to ♦ Rcpyidkan Government ms, it may be sv^i^iosed, 
with those laboring to form it. His success with his iron works, 
the size of his house and the extent of his land holdings, all 
would place him as a prototype of the successful business rmn 
who from the circumstances of his epoch wins great personal 
advantage and helps to create the great economic fabric of the 


Plan of "Hampton" 
Measuted and Drawn for House and Garden, January, 1903 
By Laurence Hall Fowler, F. A. I. A. 

From Reproduction in Great Georgian Houses of America, Volume I (1933) 

First Floor Plan of Hampton Mansion (over all length 175 feet) 
From Great Georgian Houses of America, Volume I (1933) 

"HAMPTON," BALrmmmmmmmf, M^YLAND 105 

Hampton " is one of the largest of the early houses of Mary- 
land and one of the few stuccoed ones, but its design is not alto- 
gether successful. The spacing of the columns of the porticoes 
is unpleasantly wide and the entablature, in scale with the porti- 
coes, is too large even when reduced, as it passes over the windows. 
This not uncommon difficulty can be met in two ways as nearby 
houses illustrate. At "Homewood" and at "Whitehall" both 
the architrave and frieze are omitted over the windows. This 
allows a pleasant domestic scale. At the "' Executive Mansion " 
in Washington the order is repeated between the windows and 
at the corners of the building. Thus the windows occur in a 
panel formed by the order which carries across the entire facade. 
ThM-'^mnmsaikm^-mme monumental. At " Hampton " there is 
also too great a discrepancy of scale between the main house and 
the wings. However, the great size and spread of the house is 
magnificent, t&A the tall cupola and chimneys, large deco- 
rated dormers and the finials above the pediments and at the 
corners of the roof produce an extremely animated sky line. 

No diiinge im been i»«ie m ^kf'^mm imee Ifes {xiis^'^ea 
except that colored glass has replaced the clear glass of the origi- 
nal sash in the halls, and in 1867 the north portico steps were 
i^jphncM hf the pfeief* mmMx-^mm Sm^^ by E. G. Lind, an 
architect of Baltimore. 

The plan was surely conceived for large entertaining. The 
wide cfflftfailafi is on* of the distinguishing features of the house. 
Its openness is delightful both for summer living and for enter- 
taining a number of people. A ne^hbor in the time of the Gen- 
eral describes ari octasion when ■ffiy^snK persons sat down to 
dinner in the great hall and " every one had plenty of room." ^* 
One suspects that the architectural screen that divided the hall 
from the stairway is a device lor -mmermg heat in the rooms 
used for family living during winter months. It was thus pos- 
sible to contract living to the two rooms flanking the stair hall. 
€lB ^ se@ai(A ^cm 4irecti(Hi of th» ^mermmMki^ t&s^ml 
hM: k 'i^mmeA mi ^ a^ms w^'itm enteswo^ are taken 

Annie Leakin Sioussat in her book Old Baltimore (New York, 1931), oppo- 
site p. 187, shows a water color of a " Ridgely House at North Point," which has 
an unusually tall cupola. "Siet mmKkit m tm . t» 4|»-a(giet» at " Hbttaptw " ira«bt be 
more than a coincidence. 

•♦Diary of Henry Thompson af " CHfton," MS in possession of MatylMid 
Historical Society. 



by two bed rooms. The third floor, in the roof, is divided into 
ten small rooms and from the hall a circular stair rises to the 
cupola. No decorative plaster work such as we see in other 
houses of Maryland and Virginia exists. The more important 
rooms are decorated with simple dentilled cornices and the over- 
mantels and doorways by regulation entablatures of excellent 

The southern portico overlooks the extensive gardens laid out 
by the General about 1800. The lawn is decorated by fine trees 
and bordered by ancient cedars. Thence a grass ramp «3£lm& 
to the next lower level which is taken up by box gardens on each 
side of the main axis. The two lower levels are similarly laid 
«^ and the ptmeipd vista ends with a group of monume^l 
spruce. To the west are the green houses and the gardener's cot- 
tage. The ruins of the old orangery are quite close to the main 
house. To the east behind an arbor-vitae hedge is the kitchen 
garden and farther off, enclosed by a brick wall, is the family 
burial ground. The gardens are conceived in excellent harmony 
iHA <^ lioise, mA i^stm tpusmmm trees, especM(% m ^ ^mng, 
are as fine as any that can bi" isai in the State. 

Today, two centuries and <ftliee years after the first Ridgely 
acquired Maffiptm es^ste, #ie mansion still Ms ttdbitf m tiie 
center of its spreading grounds and the cupola rises proudly above 
the thickening trees. The centuries have left their mark, however, 
f Of soffle of ttie trees a*e b«it mi J|»dfeen. (Mtets h«w Mitn 
and their substance already merges with the garden soil. The 
paths need attention and the box is partly missing and uncared for. 
Only dauntless jonquils are blooming. The family graves are 
at the end of a path hard to follow. Their monuments are over- 
grown with honeysuckle and ivy. 

The house, like so many shnflarr ones tmable to adjust to chang- 
ing times, now lacks the luster of the days of its prime. Fabrics 
and paints are faded and worn. The great hall no longer re- 
sounds to half a hundred lusty guestt ars if did t?hcn the General 
entertained his farmer neighbors. Much of the interior furnishing 
remains but some absences are notable. The portrait of the Gen- 
eral's daughter Eliza, — the " Lady with the Harp " — together with 
the General's own, both by Sully, are in the National Gallery in 
Washington. Some of the old furniture has been replaced by 
changing tastes and some is scafttesed by infiseritance and by gift. 


The rooms echo no more to the laughter of children nor to the 
gaiety of young people. Their silences, for the solitary guest, are 
broken by the tinkle of the chandeliers to the tread of feet above. 
The sounds of cultivation never come in the open windows for the 
surrounding fields are gone, replaced by the tide of an advancing 
city. " Hampton," as a family estate, has succumbed to modern 
times. It will, fortunately for posterity, by reason of its purchase 
by the Avalon Trust, remain as an unique evidence of the taste 
of one family, that continuously since the nation was founded, 
maintained occupancy and there centered its hopes and affections. 
It now approaches the measureless uncertainties of the future, 
like some river that has fulfilled its function and hesitates at a 
new and slower phase, hdme it flows placidly to ^ opea le*.* 

**The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. W. B. Maxye who sup- 
plied him with infoiraiation from the land records which he would not otherwise 
have had. 



By Esther B. Stabler 

To the inhabitants of the Sandy Spring section of Maryland 
who are familiar with the woods and meadow lands along the 
winding Patuxent river, the sheet of blue water now covering the 
valley from Brinklow to Triadelphia seems a magic lake. Formed 
by an impounding dam built in 1941 by the Washington Suburban 
Sanitary Commission, it covers an area some six miles in extent, 
just north of Brookeville, and serves in part as the boundary 
between Montgomery and Howard counties. Beneath the placid 
surface of the water, however, lie the foundations of a once pros- 
perous industrial community founded by three brothers-in-law, 
Isaac Briggs, Thomas Moore, and Caleb Bentley, and named in 
deference to their family connection and their Quaker faith 
" Triadelphia." The hum of the mill wheels they erected early 
in the nineteenth century have been forgotten; the Triadelphia 
bell is still; but to the local historian the memories of six- and 
eight-horse teams laboring over corduroy roadbeds, hauling cotton 
from Triadelphia to Baltimore, vie for interest with the wild 
ducks and ospreys that now make Triadelphia their home. 

Indeed, the settlement of this area and the founding of this 
coeiteflity, make a fascina***^' t^my e*en without the enchant- 
ment now afforded by its present estate. In colonial times the 
Patuxent river, navigable as far as Laurel, provided access to the 
disttkt from the sea and in time provided equival^ nccem to 
deep water for the tobacco raised in the area and transported to 
the warehouses at Laurel for trans-shipment. The trip down river 
•wm long, but the countrysye %as beautiful, attesting the elo- 
quence of the river's Indian name — " Small Descending Waters." ^ 

^ Still in the possession of descendants in Sandy Spring are ancient deeds belong- 
ing to James Brooke of Charles Forest." There are several references to Snowden's 
Siver " apparently a local name for #ie Patu«e«rt once used in ■this r^on. 


triamlpwa: mmmi^M msm^ To«m 109 

Along its banks members of the Snowden family, professing 
adherence to the Society of Friends, obtained extensive grants 
o£ land and created a Quaker outpost in predominantly Catholic 
Tidewater Maryland. Here Deborah Snowden and her husband, 
James Brooke, travelled by horseback through unbroken forests, 
following Indian trails until they came to the " Charlie Forest " 
cract where, in 1728, they built the first house in this region, a 
dwelling made of logs. Here their son, Roger Brooke IV, o£ 
"" Brooke Grove," married Mary Matthews of Monocacy and be- 
came the father of ten children, seven of whom lived to become the 
ancestors of most of the inhabitants of the Sandy Spring neigh- 
borhood.^ In 1699, picturesque Thomas Brown, " the Patuxent 
Ranger," explored and surveyed for Richard Snowden the unin- 
habited forests along the.£iv^ jdmost as far as the.£utui£^ ske of 

Although more than a century was to pass before the town 
itself was founded in 1809, the influence of the Snowdens and the 
Brookes was nevertheless an important factor in its early history. 
All of Triadelphia's three founders, Briggs, Moore, and Bentley, 
married daughters of Roger Brooke IV towards the close of the 
eighteenth century; all three, being Quakers, participated in the 
religious life that the Snowdens had introduced to the region; 
and each of them, being enterprising men, determined to exploit 
the natural advantages of the area to the best of his abilities. 
Conseqeenif they deteria^i«| "hi^mif ^0wn on the 

upper reaches of the Patuxent iifegic a narrow valley, abounding 
in wild game, offered a suitabl^.H^f^e. 

WMn Ihk purpose in fMR<i fibt- tiiiee> %i»9(lters-ai4i.w fofifted a 
company and purchased a 276-acre tract for thirty dollars an 
acre; and Isaac Briggs, together with Thomas Moore, laid out the 
town and built the nine houses, the sawmill, the general store, 
the grist miU^ md ^ lAifU «K» '^ti JitiA am^^teed the 

^nee ¥^ early historf ©f this settlement is rekt^-go d©sely 
to the activities of its founders, the lives and personalities of 
these men merit brief consideration. Isaac Briggs, for example, 

* " Brooke Grove," situated near Sandy Spring, was built in 1754 and was in 
possession of the Brooke family until 1941. 

'This tract constituted a portion of "Benjamin's Lot," surveyed about 1725 for 
Benjamin Gaither. Vm -tfM i^, bttilt in a loc^r g^tm i«9t Me^^Ql^l ct&ek, 
was plainly discernible ^am 1 




had a restless and adventurous spirit which from the beginning 
seemed too volatile to be contained within the limits of the town 
he had helped create.* Almost inevitably his wide knowledge 
and varied accomplishments carried him to broader fields. The 
son of Quaker parents, Samuel and Mary Ashton Briggs of Haver- 
ford, Pennsylvania, he had been graduated from Pennsylvania 
College (now the University of Pennsylvania) in 1790 and had 
migrated to Georgetown, District of Columbia, where he estab- 
lished a printing press. In 1794 he moved to Sandy Spring where 
he opened ^fmkm^M ki that vicinity, one of such atS^m^ 
that pupils came from near and far," md m 179^ ^ mimi^d 
Hannah Brooke. 

Wor -a tisae fe«ac «tf& "irif e settl«d • ftse «#My-fo«i*ied 
community of Triadelphia. Indeed, Isaac was the only brother 
who actually took up residence there. Soon, however, he built a 
new home for Ms 'hmMf kt Sandy Spring, at a place 1«^ l*ifmn 
as " Old Sharon " and now a part of the Slade School for boys. 
The bill for the digging of the foundation of this house, rendered 
in portfttfe, "Shilling, and pence, is at present taftong the papers 
of the late Francis D. Stabler, in possession of Mr. Harold B. 
Stabler of Washington, D. C, and carries the somewhat cryptic 
entry ** for tt»ee"days digging and disappintDteft.*' 

Not content with being a printer, a teacher, and a business 
entrepreneur, Briggs had also acquired considerable skill as a civil 
engineer, aflfl titM lime to fee his talents t(*fe ifi deflfMtrd m 
such widely separated areas as New York and Louisiana. Thomas 
Jefferson was acquainted with his capacities and procured fed- 
eral employmerJt f@* him, as the following le^ to <3#rerfiOT 
William Charles (Mm tISAmm of hef^kms. Territory 

I have appointed Isaac Briggs, Surveyor of the lands south of Tennessee. 
He is a Quaker ; a sound Republican and of pure and unspotted character. 
In point of science, in astronomy, geometry and mathematics he stands in 
a hfle^'wift te. iffic«!fft iand second to no man in the United States. He 
set out yesterday for his destination and I recommend him to your par- 
ticular patronage. The candor, modesty and simplicity of his manners 
cannot fail to gain your este«n. For the o&ce m Surveyor, men of the 

* For a biographical study of Isaac Briggs see the article by Ella Kent Btrnmud, 
"Isaac Briggs," Maryland Historical Magazine, VII (1912), 409-419. 

^ William Farquhar, Amtds fff Sandy Sptinz, I, 276-277 (Baltimore: Gudik^ 
and Bailey, 1884). 


first order- s(- ^mct m astRMiMf md tmiimmt^ me- tam^klly 


This assignment, as it turned out, entailed more work than 
honor. Briggs's labors took him into the rivers and bayous of 
southern Louisiana where Indian, French, Spanish, and American 
interests had conflicting claims and where the luxuriance of sub- 
tropical vegetation made surveying both difficult and hazardous.'' 
A short letter addressed to President Jefferson reveals some of 
his hardships but concludes with the assurance that even this 
"fmiA fatigueing journey" would constitute a "rich reward" 
if it gave satisfaction to his friend, the President.* 

In the years following the founding of Triadelphia Briggs 
engaged extensively in canal construction. As one of the five 
engineers of the Erie Canal, he was directly in charge of the sec- 
tion laid out between Rome and Utica, New York, and in 1819 
accepted a position on the James River Canal then being built in 
Virginia. In the latter assignment he served as assistant to his 
bro5ier-in-law, Thomas Moore, the chief engineer, until the latter's 
death in 1822, at which time Briggs himself became chief engi- 
neer and completed the work. It was also upon Moore's recom- 
mendation that Bri^s engaged in his last major engineering 
enterprise^k serfes of SCftVeys for the state of Virginia relative 
to canals along the Potomac river. Briggs and his assistants, 
Asa Moore and Joseph Bentley, became ill, however, and so they 
never completed the task. Soon after Briggs died at his ftosiae iti 
Sandy Spring.*' 

Like Briggs, his brother-in-law, Thomas Moore was also a man 
of varied interests; consequently Triadelphia was merely one of 
many enterprises to him, soon to be supplanted by more enticing 
occupations. The son of an Irish Quaker who had come from 
Waterford, Ireland, to make his home in Loudoun county, Vir- 
ginia, which he named " Waterford," Thomas left Virginia in 
1794 and moved to Maryland. There he married Mary Brooke.^" 
Assuming management of his estate, he soon distinguished 

° Quoted by Barnard, op. cit. 



' Ibid. In addition to the above-mentioned activities it is to be noted that Btiges 
was a member of the New York Philosophical Sodety. His portrait, painted by 
one of the Peales, was burned by fire in New York. 

'■" Bdtim»ft Gmettt, 188€, in wsm^B&A, ef MipMt^ WiBxm^, M tmm^m& ef 

1 12 ummti^ .iBifiiiraiiK um^nM 

himself as a practical farmer. The land itself was poor when he 
took possession, of it, but before long Moore made it a model for 
other farmers in the area. From long distances, it is reported, men 
came to witness the deep plowing Moore was able to accomplish 
with a mammoth plow of his own invention, his fine stock of 
cattle in fields of red clover, his meadows of timothy, his fine 
fields of corn, and so on. Moreover, he supplemented his income 
by preparing articles on agricultural theory. His book, The Great 
Error of Agriculture Exposed, appeared in 1801. 

In addition to his interest in agricultural progress, Moore also 
busied himself with invention; his major concern in this direction 
being with refrigeration. In 1803 he obtained a patent for an 
ice-box. A curious contrivance designed to keep butter cool while 
transporting it by horseback to Georgetown, this refrigerator con- 
sisted of a cedar tub eighteen to twenty inches deep in which 
was placed a tin box surrounded with lumps of ice. The outer 
covering of the tub was made of furry rabbit skins and coarse 
woolen cloth. Later a larger model for family use was designed 
which consisted of two cedar boxes insulated with pulverized char- 
coal and cooled by an ice-filled tin box fitted to the lid. Thomas 
Jefferson, some of the heads of governmental departments, and 
other citizens of the District of Columbia used these ice-boxes, 
but they found little favor with farmers generally since not one 
in a hundred had such a useless " building as an ice house on his 

Various engineering jobs made even heavier inroads into 
Moore's time, both before and after the founding of Triadelphia. 
His work on the James River Canal has been mentioned earlier. 
In addition he was employed for a year, beginning in 1805, by 
the corporation of Georgetown to construct the causeway from 
Mason's Island (now Roosevelt Island) to the Virginia shore. 
For this work he Was paid $24,000. Later he was retained by the 
federal government to lay out the great national road to the West. 
Prior to this, during the War of 1812, he had taken charge of 
the Union Manufacturing Company's works near Ellicott's MiUs.^^ 

It is easy to understand from a cursory survey of Moore's busy 

'^^Ibid. The patent for Moore's refrigerator was signed in 1803 by President 
Jefferson and James Madison and for many years was in the attic of " AUoway," 
the home of one of his descendants near Sandy Spring. A few years ago both house 
and document were burned. 

Baltimore Gazette, clipping dated 1886. From Hallowell's scrap book. 

triadblphia: mm^mmmmMLAm) town 113 

career as cabinet maker, farmer, inventor, and engineer how 
small a part the Triadelphia enterprise played in his affairs.^' 
The mills located there were at best a sideline that brought him 
little financial gain, yet for a time he devoted considerable effort 
towards the construction of the factories, the houses, and the 
mill race. Perhaps the community would have profited from 
his greater attention, coupled as it could have been with the 
similar talents exhibited by Isaac Briggs. 

The third member of the Quaker trio who founded Triadelphia, 
CiM^- Bentley, wm--^ only brother-in-law to devote more than 
passing attention to its enterprises. The descendant of English 
Quakers who had migrated to Pennsylvania early in the seven- 
'^wAtsefttefyj'CMdj resembled the other founders of Triadelphia 
in that he too was adept in a variety of trades. He had, for 
example, been trained in clock-making and for a time was so 
engaged f^SffcjHPeMBsylvania. About 1786, howevet ^ ke tawed 
to Leesburg, Virginia, where he formed a partnership with 
Mordecai Miller for the design and execution of silverware.^* 
Some eight years later Bentley again moved, this time to Sandy 
Spring, where he met and married Sarah Brooke. The couple 
settled at Brooke's Black Meadow." Sarah lived only a few 
years after her marriage, however, and died without issue. Caleb 
later married Maria Henrietta, a daughter of Mary Cowman and 
Samuel Thomas of " Pretty Prospect," Sandy Spring." It was 
through these Maryland connections that Bentley became engaged 
in the Triadelphia enterprise, but it should be noted that he was 
also proprietor of the first store in Brookeville, and postmaster of 
the village. 

Bentley was the largest contributor to the Triadelphia enter- 
prise, if the investment of the three brothers-in-law be considered 
aside from later obligations acquired by the company.^" Conse- 
quently he was chosen president of the Triadelphia Company at 
the annual salary of one thousand dollars, while Briggs was made 
superintendent of the mills themselves. Because of these facts, 
the mills were not infrequently referred to ki ccanmon parlance 
as the " Bentley Company." 

" Moore's home, " Retreat," is situated between Sandy Spring and Brookeville. 
Longwood School for boys now occupies the site. 

^* Examples of Bentley's work are still possessed by Bentley's descendants. 

^''"Pretty Prospect," built in 1745, is now knowq as "Norwood;" liSiie 
" Brooke's Black Meadow " is now owned by Mrs. John Janney. 

" la 1814 the cora^MBiy was iaddsted to Beatley to *he extent of $10,500. 



Few descriptions of the actual operations of the company in its 
early years exist today. The best, although brief, is in the hand ' 
of Isaac Briggs and bears the dates 1812-13. He writes: 

Our force of water is amply sufficient for driving a grist mill of 2 pair 
of stones, a sawmill, and a cotton spinning mill of 5,000 spindles; and 
we have convenient room for all these mills. An adequate dam and race 
are already made. A grist mill of one pair of stones and a saw mill are 
now in complete operation. A cotton spinning mill is erected calculated 
for 1200 spindles in which we now employ 196 spindles, as already stated. 
. . . The profits of this grist mill and saw mill and the rents of houses, I 
m^^m W€taM be tqud to the current expenses ckmf 'tiaikilies.^'' 

A second account, describing the period 1820-25, indicates con- 
tinuing progress and implies a greater degree of pro^erity. Its 
author, Charles Brooke, states in retrospect: 

At that time the factory, mill and store and farm were busy and a large 
tenantry could hear the hum of machinery from morning till night. The 
business was like clcKiwork in eysay ^aach, ^rfsct ^tem prevailing 

Informatten ^6ut scxM Ife in ilie surrounding district, how- 
ever, is fairly easy to obtain, especially for the period of the "War 
of 1812. The Bentley house in Brookeville, for example, is par- 
ticularly rich in historical associations, for during the British 
invasion of Maryland and Washington in 1814 it became, for 
twenty-four hours, the seat of the national government. On 
August 24 President Madison fled the capital city and ultimately 
took refuge under Bentley' s hospitable roof. All night the vil- 
lage resounded with the clatter of horses' hooves as more and 
more exhausted refugees poured into the town. Mrs. Bentley, it 
is reported, sat at the head of her table throughout the night, 
while servants prepared one meal after another for her hungry 
guests. Every house in the village was filled to overflowing, and 
soldiers were encamped in the meadows. 

While the President was endeavoring to catch up with the 
American army, Mrs. Madison was attempting to find refuge in 
Virginia. Writing to his wife abcnit the debacle that had (MBM*^, 

Copy in possession of Mr. Jack Bentley, of Sandy Spring, Md. 
"C. I. B. Brane(.'), " Triadelphia," published in the (Dayton, Ohio) Religious 
Telescope, August 23, 1911. In 1850, it should be noted, Brane, with the aid of 
Alexander Brown, prepared from memory the only map of Triadelphia known to 
exist. In all likelihood it contains many errors. Copy l^mmi &e wete 
courtesy of Mrs. O. Harvey, of Olney. 


Asa Moore reported that the " Queen Lady Madison " had been 
observed on the Virginia side of the river above the chain bridge 
in a convoy of some two hundred baggage wagons and that " all 
parties [were] ail most fatigued to death." The President, he 
added, had retreated to Caleb Bentley's/' 

Not all of the refugees, apparently, could fully comprdiend the 
extent of the disaster that had befallen them. One, Mrs. Samuel 
Harrison Smith, wife of the editor of the National Intelligencer, 
expressed concern for the " poor wearied and terrified creatures " 
that passed by the Bentley door, but she sought to avoid the reali- 
ties of her plight by describing the excellent accommodations 
that Mrs. Bentley had aflForded her and by depicting the village 
of Brookeville as a "" secluded spot [where] one might hope the 
noise or rumour of war would never reach." Unquestionably the 
" security and peace " of Brookeville seemed to her all important 
as with admiration she quoted Mrs. Bentley 's comment: " It is 
against our principles to have anything to do with war, but we 
receive and relieve all who come to us." 

By August 27, however, affairs in "Washington had quieted 
down somewhat inasmuch as the British had departed. Writit^ 
to Mrs. Madison from the Bentley home on this date, the Presi- 
dent stated that he was assured that "Washington was free of 
British troops and that he was therefore returning immediately, 
although he confessed he did not know where they would be able, 
to find place to "" hide our heads." 

In spite of the war, which greatly crippled trade, Caleb Bentley 
managed to bring the Triadelphia mills safely through the eco- 
nomic vicissitudes of that era. By this time Isaac Briggs and 
Thomas Moore had resigned from active participation in the 
enterprise; by 1830 Bentley himself was prepared to retire.^^ It 
was therefore agreed by Caleb and the heirs of his deceased 
partners that the mills should be sold. Samuel P. Gilpin of Saody 
Spring was their purchaser. 

Moore to Mrs. Moore, September 3, 1814, letter in possession of E. B. Stabler. 
*° Margaret Bayard Smith, The First Forty Years of Washington Society (New 
York: Scribner's, 1906), pp. 98-104. 

A copy of this letter together with a plaque describing the historical significance 
of the Bentley home are present in the house today. The plaque reads: " In this 
house Aug. 26 to 27, 1814, James Madison and Richard Rush were sheltered after 
the burning by the British of the public buildings at Washington Aug. 26, 1814. 
Erected by the Montgomery County Committee of the Star Spangled Banner Society, 

"Bentley and his wife retired to Bloomfield," Sandy Spring. He died in 1851. 

In the ensuing years the Triadelphia mills were to experience 
several owners and many managers: of these individuals little can 
be ascertained today. But two or three, like some of the inhabi- 
tants of the village, have left brief records behind them; and 
since this is in part the chronicle of a village, it is fitting that some 
allusion be made to these men here. One of the managers of the 
mills, for example, was Thomas Lansdale. Having gained ex- 
perience at the Savage mills in Anne Arundel county and at 
EUicott's mills on the Patapsco, he returned to Triadelphia in 
the 1840s and introduced steam into the factories for heating 
purposes, an innovation that had few parallels in Maryland at the 
time. Lansdale, like Thomas Moore, was also inclined towards 
invention, having directed his attention to wood-planing ma- 
chinery, metallic yokes for swing bells, and so on.^^ Finally, it 
should be noted that his family was in active possession of the 
mill properties from 1872 until 1930. 

In the 1850's the mills came briefly under the supervision of 
Allen Bowie Davis. Again parallels can be drawn between an 
original founder and a subsequent manager, for Davis, like 
Moore, was more than casually interested in scientific agriculture. 
He was one of the first trustees of the Maryland Agricultural Col- 
lege, now the University of Maryland, and was, in addition, at 
one time president of the Maryland Agricultural Society.^* He 
occupied his grandfather's home " Greenwood," once among the 
finest places in Montgomery County. 

A third citizen of Triadelphia, William Painter, should also 
be noted here, not because of any influence that he exercised over 
ihe operation of the town's industrial life but rather because of 
the influence that the Triadelphia mills exercised over him. Born 
in 1838, the son of Dr. Edward Painter and Louisa Gilpin Painter, 
Painter was to devote much of his life to mechanical 
engineering. Over eighty-five patents were granted in his name; 
and one of these, a wire-retaining rubber stopper, brought about 
the organization of the Triumph Bottle Stopper Company, a fore- 
runner of the Crown Cork and Seal Company. Painter joined 
the latter corporation at its inception, serving until 1903 as secre- 

** Dawson Limmtee, Att^ of Men^iMttiry €im(ff <T Mfa M pfe» : €. M. fioplans, 
" Ibid. 

" Oirin C Painter, Genealogy and Biographical Sketches of the Family of Samuel 
Pmnter. (Baltimore: Btii^, 1903.) 


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de efLarinoni.tYicMs.lOHaieJMottbCetp*rS/!cp. 

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4t Spring. 


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II DoubkdostofDifytrMijsgnntSI Church. StO//ittrOeirjKMMiMintrrJtr BfoiMt 

ISStobios. XVtktow Bomti'House. XCou/i/iowtr Ootin»thit*tr. 

i50atfenWa!>ifHou3€ 33Mro*Heus». ao/dv^'hi^oyidt/fooae 

14 nog Pens S4/'raf/^ouS0. 5*Downs fious*. 

ISfy-ogPond Z5 Corn tlovsi: S5Pri^/€ Sehcel /iouio 

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l?Otldt-'cl!oniHall(S<:noiie<lml37Sltl>ltimirtBiiUult^mmr,llt,tSr\^ ^^^^^^ />-««» 
/a Sormo oird Ooiries XBorir&htnn/iKffCiriaiiea SB}-' 
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S9WI,h*Oml< Trrm. 
* htdiooHtPiam ^fen/t/fo" 

Map from Religious Telescope, Dayton, Ohio, August 23, 1911. 



Although some of its citizens were to secure prosperity and 
success in years following the Civil War, Triadelphia itself evi- 
denced little save decline. In 1868 the Patuxent river went on 
the rampage and swept away a part of the ill-fated town. The 
grist mill and a blacksmith shop remained in operation; the post 
office continued the three weekly mails that more prosperous times 
had made necessary; but the town itself never recovered. Later 
a second flood destroyed all possibilities of restoration. From that 
time on the ruined village became a local ghost town " — a 
haunt of picknickers. Their swimming hole was a deep pool 
lying between rocky banks. The surrounding woodlands were a 
tangle of wild fox grapes. 

The devastation that time and flood had brought was only too 
evident to one former resident who returned in 1905. Tears 
came to his eyes, he recorded, when he beheld the ruins of this 
CMice-prosperous community. The village chwA w«s «tored with 
farm implements.^® The once trim main street was a weed- 
choked lane, passing by two dilapidated stone houses and dwin- 
dling into a foot path which lost itself in the woods. 

Along the banks great blue herons and kingfishes survey their 
new water kingdom. Only the honk of wild geese or the putt- 
putt of a patrol boat break for a moment the stillness that now 
has settled upon die villige of Trk«48l|)hia. 

Statement of CoNDmoN, 1815, Caleb Bentley & Co. 
[From p»p&! M Possession of Mis. E. H. SttMerH 

In the Cotton Factoiy f 22,000 

9 Dwelling houses ft 1 ime, cm leat tot tim pf. tti. 6,400 

Farm, 275 acres ® J30 8,250 

Gristmill 3,550 

SawmUl 1.300 

WodC«^Ae 1,000 

Wh^ ammit of Stock (now invested). ^,500 

List of Debts (in Notes from C. B. & Co.) 

1815 Prin- 

To Bank of Columbia dated 3 mo 23 payable 5 mo 25 4,500 

'" B. of Frederick Town " 2 mo 15 " 4 mo 19 3,000 

U. B. of George Town " 3 mo 10 " 7 mo 10 1,300 

" Dr. John Bowie " 7 mo 20 " 7 mo 20 2,500 

"Bsme, op. cit. 




Roger Brooke Trustee 
Micajah Welding 
Roger Brooke 
James B. Matthews 
William H. Anderson 

10 mo 1 
1 mo 1 
3 mo 6 

12 mo 31 

3 mo 6 

Beale Gaither 
Robert Ramsay 
Patridc D. Savage 

Caleb Bentley 
Bernard Gilpin 
Thomas Moore 

notes in the Name of I»imi fii'iiftl) 

dated 5 mo 31 payable on demand 
6 mo 1 
" 7 mo 5 


Probable Amount of Interest occuring 
4 mo 1-181S 

Balana due to Isaac Briggs 











Estimate for 1815. Profits & Expenses of Cotton Spinning at 
Tkiaoelphia, bv J. BiU@@ 

[Paper in possession of Mrs. E. H. Stabler] 

Taking the course of work which we have found pcte^kable $mi p^ormed dur- 
ing the 4 first weeks of this year (1815) as a standard, and supposing it continued 
throughout the year, the result would be as follows; 

We spin pr week 400 lbs. yarn averaging No. 10 which is pr annum 

20,800 lbs. yarn at 70«f ♦l4,560.— 

To the weight of yam add its % part & we have 

24,960 Hjs. Bale Cotton, suppose ®i 26i 1 , ^. 

rated on the yarn it is @ 31-%(i! 3 C)48y.&0 

Hauling do. (rated on the yarn) at 104. — 

Wages, $70 pr. week, which is pr. annsasi 1 -gx- 

rated on the yarn at 17-%(i 3 

Packing 20800 lbs. yarn »t 104.— 

Q^it^ out do. #i %»i 62.40 

All these added together, rated on (lie y»ra ©r. 50(i 10,400. — 

Gross annu«l profit »t 20^ 4,l60. — 

Deduct,. Interest on $21,000 1,260. — 

For Dividend $ 2,900.— 


MAiiYLA«?D immimAL nmmmm 

We have 9 Carding Engines, which ought to produce 540 lbs. yarn pr. 
week and with the addition of a good Picking Machine & a good 
Stretching frame, thejr would do it; these would add #Me our 
stock — 

540 lbs. yam pr. week, would be per annum 

28080 lbs. at 20^ for gross annual profit $ 5,616. — 

Peduct Interest on $21800 1,308. — 

Leaving for Dividend $ 4,308. — 

With the addition of $6200 more to our stock, we might have 12 
Carding Engines, 1200 Spinning Spindles, & the intermediate machinery 
in correct proportion, we ought then to produce 720 lbs. yarn per wedc, 

or 37,440 lbs. pr. annum @ 22^ for gross annual profit $ 8236.80 

Deduct Interest on $28000 1680.— 

Leaving for Dividraid | 6556.80 


By Douglas H. Gordon 

Visitors to London are frequently regaled with an account of 
the streets named for George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 
They a«* always told that it was the nchle Duke himself, 
who when he sold York House and its grounds, extending from 
the Thames to the Strand, insisted that the streets to be laid out 
on the property by the new owner should be called George Street, 
Villiers Street, Duke Street, and Buckingham Street and that the 
connecting link between the last two should receive the glorious 
designation, " Of Lane." 

The personality dictating such a curiously egotistical procedure 
is described in Alexander Pope's lines as a rattle-brained eccentric, 

Who in the course of one revolving moon. 
Was chemist, fiddler, statesman and buffoon, 
Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking. 
Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking. 

Another poet of the time did not have to name the same cour- 
tier md street ^M^nec wben hs f^Sf^ dil^eed from, 

Damning whatever we do not understand, 

From purchasing at Dowgate and selling in the Strand, 

Gdling str^^ memiKKii^tkm -me-hlM,- mii- the land. 

Baltimore Strieets show many examples of tnote spontaneous 
naming, based not upon self-adoration, but upon true hero wor- 
ship. George Washington is honored by Washington Street, 
Washington Boulevard, and Washington Place, besides Mount 
Vernon Place. John Eager Howard, Revolutionary officer, gov- 
ernor, friend of Washington and Lafayette, and ever entitled to 
Baltimore's gratitude for his early efforts at city planning, is re- 
membetnl' ^^ta ^reet, Eager &reet and Howard ittefet. 




Charles Carroll is doubly recalled by Carroll Street and Caxx@iil@n 
Avenue, and Lafayette by Fayette Street and Lafayette Avenue. 

Names that precede the Revolutionary period are Cheapside, 
Fleet Street, Leadenhall Street, Lombard Street, Thames Street and 
Wapping Alley, all reminiscent o£ London. In the days before 
the mismanagement of the colonies by a party too long in power, 
had brought odium upon everything royal, Hanover Street glori- 
fied the continental kingdom of the ruling family of England, and 
Brunswick Street, Hanover's similarly ruled neighbor. 

Nmmes of English defenders of the American Colonists are 
Barre, Wilkes and Chatham, whose family name, Pitt, was given 
to two streets, both of which have disappeared. Among streets 
named for fr^fii ^ America should also be msei^i&mA ftttt 
and Camden (and perhaps even Charles Street, the origin of which 
has never been satisfactorily explained) . These remind the present 
age of Charles Pratt, Lord Camden, who made himself ttte idol 
of the Colonists by boldly declaring invalid the general search 
warrants under which evidence was sought to support treason 
charges against WHkes attd other persons obnoxious to #te hated 
government of George IIL Wolfe Street bears the name of the 
conqueror of the French at Montreal. His conquered antagonist 
was generously accoided recognition in the naming of Montcalm 

Sections dear to Colonists from London or to later sojourners 
there are recoRled in the names Bloomsbury, Chelsea, Pall Mall 
and Walbrook. Nearby cities gave their names to Brighton, 
Windsor, Canterbury and Oxford. Celebrated English homes are 
recalled by Carlton Stteet, derived from George HTs Carlton 
House, Fonthill Street, from William Beckford's Fonthill Abbey, 
Kenwood Street, from the superb home designed by the Adam 
brothers for Qiief Justice Mansfield (now a public mhseum con- 
taining the magnificent collection of paintings formed by the late 
Lord Iveagh) , and Goodwood RiQad fiom the estate of the Duke 
of Richmond in Sussex. 

Eden Street carries on the name of the last Colonial Governor 
of Maryland, ancestor of Anthony Eden, and brother-in-law of 
the last Lord Calvert for whose family, of course, Calvert Street 
as well as Baltimore Street is named. Harford Avenue is named 
for the county to which it leads, and this in turn for Henry Har- 
ford, the illegitimate son of the final Lord Calvert to whom he 



bequeathed the State of Maryland, sm-Mnm^mme iwtt iibm^ lAiB 
time declined to be inherited. 

At the period of the Revolution when patriotic sentiments were 
running high, Lexington Street reflected Baltimore's enthusiasm 
for the battle where the shot was fired " heard round the world," 
Saratoga Street for the surrender of the hard-hearted but unsuc- 
cessful English general, Burgoyne, and Eutaw Street fof fe«iafc 
of Eutaw Springs in which the " Maryland Line " took a glorious 
part. Liberty, Federal and Independence Streets suggest the ideas 
of the Kew3i»t 0Hgfy fUtd subsequent periods. Statesm» M- 
diers of the Revolution who gave their names to Baltimore streets 
were Samuel Chase, the turbulent Revolutionary figure who be- 
came a justice of "ftte Supreme 0)urt, Franklin, NatKanM CSteeiie, 
second only to Washifl^oii in the military side of the Revolution, 
John Hanson, first President of the Congress of the Confederacy, 
rasiferiht AfkdtS^f Confederation, and sometimes catted tht first 
provisional President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, 
whose claims to fame are too well-toown to require mention, 
John Laurens, Washington's afkfe fS^iO WSi Ae VicOinte dte 
NoaiUes, dictated the terms of Cornwallis' surrender, James 
McHenry, Washington's and afterwards Lafayette's secretary 
from whom Baltimore's harbor fort received its name ^fien he 
was Secretary of War during Washington's second administration, 
James Madison, the most influential member of the Constitutional 
Convention, James Monroe, his successor as President, and creator 
of the Monroe Doctrine, William Paca, one of Maryland's signers 
of the Declaration and its third Governor, Casimir Pulaski, the 
unfortunate Polish nobleman, who lost his life in the cause of 
American liberty, William Smallwood, Commander of the first 
Maryland regiment in the Revolutionary War, Baron von Steuben, 
who built up the discipline of the Revolutionary recruits, and 
made them more than a match for professional British soldiers, 
Richard Stockton, one of New Jersey's signers of the Declaration, 
and Anthony Wayne, whose impulsiveness in attacking the foe 
e«tt&i' fcil»#^ 'h<M4(Sfti4e«xibriquet of Mad Anthony WayM. 

The period of the war of 1812 and the first half-century of 
the prospering republic live again in the names of Armistead, 
def^der of Fort McHenry against the British, Barney, tlfc BrH- 
liant naval commander called a pirate by the British, Brooks, an 
early President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Calhoun, 


MARYLAt^D mn^oKtcM. mMMzmn 

Baltimore's first mayor, Caton, son-in-law of Charles Carroll and 
father of the first American Duchess, the Duchess of Leinster (to 
be succeeded a hundred years later by another Baltimorean as the 
first Royal Duchess), Clay, who is also remembered by Ashland 
Street, named for his home in Kentucky, Dallas, Secretary of the 
Treasury and acting Secretary of War during the last part of the 
war of 1812, Decatur who fought the Tripoli pirates, Fulton, the 
inventor of the steamship, Fremont, army officer, explorer and 
first presidential candidate of the Republican party, Latrobe, dis- 
tinguished architect and engineer who designed the Cathedral, 
Perry, naval hero of the war of 1812, Poe, greatest of American 
poets, Taney, Maryland's only Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
md- Poppletoa, Ivmed for his survey of BiMinMN»>. p@^- 
larity of Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, is proclaimed by a 
street, as well as by the more generally known cake bearing his 
oMne, mi^^tfd -of mtiside Baltimore, despitrit$'^»«)Ct laftieHefe. 
Ashburton Street reminds this disturbed century of the English 
lord who obligingly yielded to American views, and thus termi- 
nftteil ^ mctimmmm €tmm^Sm 'hmii^ -ms^mftimf, 'LffKinitA 
Street, of John Singleton Copley, Jr., son of the Boston painter, 
who became famous under the title of Lord Lyndhurst, as the 
only American h&m C^meeffi&t i^ H^gkMid. 

Strange contrasts exist in the names of such oddly assorted 
pairs of streets as Argonne and Arizona, Baltic and Boston, 
Berlin and China, Burgundy and California, Colorado atid Cnba, 
Delaware and Devonshire, Granada and Idaho, Montpelier and 
Ottawa, and Portugal and Vincennes. Shakespeare, Hamlet and 
Elsinore, Scott, Kenilworth and Ivanhoe, and Milton, suggest that 
literary admirations were once (iwiw^Mi nmong the idene el 
builders of our City. 

Other names are purely descriptive and range all the way from 
matter-of-fact Quarry Avenue to Cold Spring Lane, including 
Reservoir Street, Terrace Road, Water Street, Falls Road and 
Valley Street. In contrast some streets have names hardly ap- 
plicable to thoroughfares at ail, such as Port and Madeira, Pearl 
and Iris, Mince and Muriel, and Ciy§t^ md Comet Streets* and 
Wine and Cider Alleys. 

"Plill there are names suggesting Baltimore's great sm- 
fym^ fiNt mot as Bd4^, Mmmmt 4^jmt fbtsburg, and a host 



of names of otherwise forgoiNft iilifiMIW^ kt the section of the 
City around the harbor. 

Former suburbs which have become part of metropolitan Bal- 
timore are numerous. Equally interesting are survivals of the 
names of estates which have long since, in most cases, been divided 
into rows of smaller houses. Auchentoroly Terrace takes its name 
from Auchentorolie, the Buchanan estate, afterwards acquired 
by Colonel Nicholas Rogers by marrying his cousin Eleanor 
Buchanan, and now a part of Druid Hill Park, the name of 
which in turn comra from the name of 4ft« ^aaflibiaeel Iwdianan 
and Rogers properties. Clifton Park was once the summer home 
of Johns Hopkins. Cylburn Road skirts the boundary of the 
beautiful Tysofi-Cotten eitMe, Cj^fewa, recently acquired by the 
City as a park. Greenmount Avenue, bordering the cemetery, 
runs through part of Greenmount, owned by the Oliver family, 
whose entrance was where Oliver Stfcet begins. Guilford Avenue 
leads to the McDonald property (later owned by the Abell 
family), which gave its name to the Roland Park Company's 
most ambitious development. Nearby Ketiiwood Avenue and its 
variants, Kerneway and Kernyork Lane owe their names to Kern- 
wood, a Wilson home, now replaced by that of Mrs. Miles White. 
Darley Avenue occupies part of Darley Hall, a Patterson home 
in northeast Baltimore. Nearby Homewood Avenue shows how 
far the property of the younger Carroll, whose residence is now 
the architectural jewel of tiie Jctos Hopkins University campus, 
once extended. Mondawmin Avenue has adopted the name of 
the nearby home still occupied by the patriarch of Baltimore 
financiers, Alexander Brown. Montebello Drive recalls the 
Samuel Smith villa afterwards owned by the Garrett family. Mt. 
Clare Street shares the name of the finest Eighteenth Century 
house surviving in Baltimore, that of Charles Carroll the Barrister, 
rec^ly restored and opened to the public. Oak Hill Avenue per- 
petuates the name of the Jenkins-Kennedy-Boone home which 
formerly stood just north of Greenmount Cemetery where Ken- 
nedy and Boone Streets begin. Tivdy was the Exotic natne, 
exotically spelled, of the country place of one of Baltimore's most 
practical citi2ens, Enoch Pratt. 

It would be an endless task to explain the origin of Baltimore 
streets having Baltimore family names, often those of real estate 




developers. At least the ones which have been mentioned, — and in 
some cases no doubt they have been named for undistinguished 
citi2ens whose names are identical with those of heroes — , recall 
pleasant memories of the subjects of Baltimoreans' admiration, 
and of the interesting development of the metropolis of today. 
These streets have not acquired their names by such duress as 
the freakish second Duke of Buckingham practised at the time 
of the sale of York House. They carry to future ages far more 
satisfactorily the memory of those who built the City or were for 
more spectacular accomidisiHn^ite atfanired by its citizen. 


FRANK B. MAYER, 1856-1870 

Edited Makvim C. ■ ite t fel ' W'WtM^ BnmmGE 

Thirteen fetters from Wfliiam Henry Rinehart (1825-1874), 
the Maryland sculptor, to Frank Blackwell Mayer (1827-1878), 
the Maryland painter, cover the period from the commencement 
of the sculptor's life in Europe until shortly before his death. 
They give an account of the social and artistic climate of Balti- 
more and a pleasant picture of his association with artists and 
patrons ifi Rcttie. They ctenonstrate very vividly how a talentfcd 
and genial boy from the farm was helped and welcomed by 
the prosperous merchants at home and his fellow-artists abroad. 
These letters are published at the same time as an exhibition of 
his' sculpture held at the Walters Art Gallery under the joint 
sponsorship of The Peabody Institute and with a catalogue by 
these editors (A Catalogue of the Work of William H. Rinehart, 
Baltimore, 1948). The letters were presented to the library of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art by A. Hyatt Mayer, who had 
received them from Frank B. Mayer's stepdaughter. 

Other Rinehart letters, addressed to his friend and patron, 
William T. Walters, have been published by William Sener Rusk 
in the Maryland Historical Magazine, " New Rinehart Letters," 
Vol. XXXI, pp. 225-242 (1936). 

For further material on Rinehart, the reader is referred to the 
following: " Notes on the Life of William Henry Rinehart, 
Sculptor," by William Sener Rusk, Maryland Historical Magazine, 
Vol. XIX, pp. 309-338 (Dec, 1924); "Rinehart Works" by 
William Sener Rusk, Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. XX, 
pp. 380-383 (Dec, 1925) ; and to the book, William Sener Rusk, 
William Henry Rinehart, Sculptor, Baltimore, Norman T. A. 
Munder, 1939- 

Florence June 11th 1856 

My dear Mayer 

Your of April 6 & inclosed from Mr. Baughman ^ came duly to hand 
and as no combination of words by me can express my surprize & joy I 

* Head of the Bdtimoie iBfti<bk yacd vhete K^iMwrt hiA wedced. 




wifl content myself by returning mf hesstfelt for your ernest & 

never tiring efforts in my behalf. I can assure you nothing could of been 
more oppertune for if things had not of turned up I could of been on 
my way home in three months. However much I desire to remain here 
a wile longer you need not have any fear of my not returning to America. 
If I can get money I shall remain here a year or two longer for I feel 
certain it will be best. I hope before this to of seen you out here what 
do you think about In fact it is not worthwhile for you to thiitic nuich 
about it pack up & come iflmediately & what have you been doing siws I 
last write K M me fcnow tH about art in Baltimore the long letter I -wtote 
you some weeks since leaves me nothing to fill up with except I give you 
a description of Italy & the Italians but I think I will refer you to 
Milliard ^ or Murry ^ I am sure they will be more interesting than I 
would be. The commission you so kindly obtained for me I will com- 
mence in a few months & do my best upon it you may depend.* I will 
also make a sketch for a geant & forward it as soon as possible. Please 
thank Mr. Albert in my name & say to him I hope to prove myself worthy 
of the confidence he has placed in me. My thanks to Mr. Wyman ' also. 
My best respects to all inquiring friends 

Yours . . . 

Wm H Rinehart 

F B Mayer 


London September 6th 

My dear Mayer 

I take the liberty of inclosing to you two photographs from a new 
sketch of my Indian ^ Soon after my arrival in Europe I became asshamed 
of my little figure so I threw it against the wall & broke it too pieces, 
the present one I think is a decided improvement on the other though 
the s^k & attitude is much the same This however illustrates a dif- 
ferent story. The time is midnight & she is traiJiag lier undetgarnKnt 
around the cornfield to keep off the vermin it was a cave man custc^i 
among the Indians. Longfellow makes mention of it.' 

' Referring to one of the editions of George Stillman Hillard's editions of Six 

Months in Italy. 

" John Murray's Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy. 
* Possibly the commission for the Indian Girl. 

^ Samuel Wyman mi "Sffifmm et H ^ ^mt m ««r« saioa^ the sculptor's first 
patrons; they purch«sed a imuA)le " htt^simmimm" said to have been his first 
work in that material, possibly his first work in Riarble in the round. This was 
exhibited at the Maryland Historical Society in 1856. Its present location is 


' Executed on order for Augustus J. Albert, 1828-1912, of Baltimofe, a generous 

friend and patron. 

' In " Hiawatha " ; the " Blessing of the Corn Fjelds." Rinehart must have 
been using the first edition (Boston, 1855). 


I think it a very Philasophical idea founded on the fact that many 
animals will not pass were man has been if they can well avoid it & the 
trailing of the undergarment would leave a much stronger scent than 
walking around In looking at the picture you must not forget that it is 
taken from a mere sketch for which I had nether cast or models to make 
from Mr. Hart ^ thinks it decidedly my best effort. I see by the Photo- 
graph it wants feeling in to all over which of course I could not do 
without no time I hope to make another . . . picture of it next time. 

I will return to Florence soon & commence it as large as life. I find 
it much better to model life size & I can reduce it to any size in marble, 
a figure always improves by being reduced from a larger to a smaller but 
never vice rersi. I ^Mt fie wtdd order it life size. I #o«id do it for 
$1,800.00 it would do me so much more good. Please send one of 
these to Mr. Albert & explain its being taken from a sketch. I wish 
if it is in your power let me know something about his tastes For a 
group wether he is fond of the sentimental Heroick or sad so that I may 
work more knowingly since little time must necessarily elapse before I 
can send a design for it is something which requires the greatest care & 
study If I aew the naii I C0«*1 iswib easier pkase him I imt mt been 
idle in making sketches but as yet have none to please me. I am here 
in London by invitation of Mr. Hart who came here to try his modelling 
instrument & get it Patented. I found myself out of money about the 
first of July. He made me the offer if I would come with him here & 
help him he would pay all expenses both traveling & living so I have 
Spent a couple of summer months here most delightfully and profitably 

The Cfpsi. Palace Westminster Abby & British 'Wbmm ire afi fiBed 
with great & noble works of sculpture. I will fist tttempt to describe 
them for I have no descriptive powers but I find a wonderful deal here 
to study. 

I am quite ancious to here from you. I have written twice but have as 
yet had no answer, please answer this immediately if you have time. If 
it is not too much trouble I wish you would mount the Photographs you 
send to Albert it will show so much better. Remember me to Mr. & 
Mrs. Wyman Mr. & Mrs. Mayer * & the rest of your family. Except 
my innermost thanks ior your mmsf iax&em I 

Remain yows truly 

Wm H Rinehart 

Mr. F B Mayer 

N. B. direct Florence, Italy 

•Joel T. Hart, 1810-1877, American sculptor, who invented and pstented a 
machine y^ich fadlitated measuring for portrait busts. He wrote his brother 
from London in 1857: " Powers, and the rest of them, hate it like the devil." In 
London he received orders for ten busts at one hundred guineas each. 

' Charles Frederick Mayer, 1795-1864, a Baltimore lawyer. Mrs. Mayer was 
Eliza Caldwell Blackwell, 1803- ? . . . 




London Sqjtember 26th 

Newmaft * CMdfo*d St 
My dear Mayer 

Although nothing received in answer to either of my last letters I 
hope you will pardon my again troubling you. Inclosed I send you a 
Photograph taken from a sketch which I have made for Mr. Albert ^° 
the model from which it was taken is very small ruff & no doubt full 
«f faults and must he viewed as a sketch merely. The subject is a group 
m yeu will perceive which I call an early settler or Pioneer & family 
cOiisfetrftg ©f father mother « dJild as accompanied by lS»eir faitMul 
dog. Upon a rock from under which gushes a fountain back of the 
child sits the Father after a hard days travel riffle in hand with the 
mother tired and faint has fallen to sleep upon his nee the child who 
is supposed to of been carried all day is playfully amusing himself with 
the dog whose quick perception sees something in the distance. 

The whole formii^ a pyramid widi this slyte discription I must stop 
fm i iam n&t im^ea^ mf Htm <M kt-f^htt- 'wofdt hare no descrip- 
tive powers. I know with your strong & quick perceptions you will 
readily understand it. I wish you to pass your opinion upon it freely 
to me. I know it is full of faults in drawing & modeling but will the 
idea do.^^ If you think it has sufficient merit to recommend it please 
show it to Mr. Albert & your uncle B — Mayer & other who may 
come in the way. If mr. Albert or any others should see fit to honor 
me with a co^Mmssioa fof WiSas fgke I woald do it for is diis 

the size of life $4 000.00 

half do 1800.00 

This is as little as I think it could be done for as it would be equal to 
three full size figures & the mt^Ae would cost a great dei^ mo« in a 
group than single figures, two of them at least would hatt to be in 
one piece. 

Now speaking honestly I think this as low as I could do it but if he 
likes the design & the price is an objection I have no doubt we can 
arrange it satisfactory. Please write me at your earliest convenience & 
let me know all about it. any suggestions you have to make either in 
this or the Indian Girl you think proper I would receive with great 
{deasure for my confidence in your op^inic»i has not in the slitest diminished 
but still do & ever Will remember wMl gratttude the many kindly sug- 
gestions you made when I was yet with you. I am quite well & am 
still in London but long to get back to old Italy the reason of my being 

Probably Augustus Albert. 
" This group was never executed in the large. 

^^Brantz Mayer, 1809-1879, of Baltimore. Lawyer, author and traveller; one of 
the founders of the Maryland Historical Society and its president 1867-71; he 
was also President of the Library Company of Baltimore. 


here I explained in my last letter Although we have as yet modelled 
but one bust I think we will make it pay before we leave for myself I 
have been already paid fourfold in information for there is much here 
both to interest and instruct. I have not been idle by any means for 
were there is so much to see there is a vast deal sugested & I have been 
busy making sketches I have another which will be finished in two or 
three weeks which if it comes out well I will bore you with another 
photograph it is a female figure full draped. 

I hope you will not think me vain in sending you so many photographs 
for it is not notoriety I am after but a commission supposing I have now 
about bored your patience out I will close but you would like no doubt 
my opinion of Jony Bull, the best description I have heard of the 
gmmil opinion of the JBMjish was given by Rogers the sculptor the 
heads of the women are like plum pudding thus [sketch] & of the men 
a plum pudding with mutton chop wiskers thus [sketch] howwrar I l&e 
them pretty well & London too yours truly 

Wkfi ft Rinehart 

if you write soon direct here if not 
to Italy 

I perhaps wffl remahi bett a moMh ledger so if you wrfte soon direct 
no 74 Newman St. Oxford St London if however you do not write 
soon direct Florence Italy my letters are perfectly safe there — I have a 
friend & he sends them to me. I am very anxious to now how you are 
agetting along & when you are a coming out to this old country if you 
clear out strike for Rome I am agoing there as soon as I get money enough. 
Please send me your address for fear you have not received my letter I 
send this to Baughman 

Rome July 5 1859 

My dear Mayer 

I suppose you think it is a long wile between letters but to tell you 
the truth I have so many to write & so little to write about that I have 
got extremely tired trying to find something except I take up the all 
absorbii* question of the day that is war. War is all that is thought of 
or talked afxjat even in this «rtiM«iinary quiet place or I might almost 
say stupid place the excitement hm i>een quite high which shows that the 
Romans are not quite dead yet fliey still have a small spark within them 
that if blowed a little bit will blaze after the Battle of Magenta the 
whole city was illuminated by the people shouted in the street for France 
& liberty. I was surprized upon going into the street to hear shouting 

^'Randoli* Rogers, 1825-1892, sculptor; an American long resident in Rome; 
he fini^id Crawford's Washington for Richmond; he made doors for &ie United 
S^m Gtf^eH. His most popttlar •woj|s"%»s Nydia, of which the Peabo«% fejjtterte 
owns a copy. 

'^^tafei^ of the Austrian: by the Fiendi mi ^ MSnSms . 



so I went to see what it was & I found an immense crowd around the 
house of the Sardinian Minister & after leaving that they move to the 
french Generals all the time shouting thence to the Ministers & soon 
although the street was densely crowded & the pope mad with excite- 
ment I cant say that I never saw so many people of all rank upon an 
loccasion of the kind conduct themselves so well. So far there has not 
been any disturbance in Rome owing intirely to the French being here. 

^ ^ic ^ sfs ^ 

The conduct of the Swiss was very outrageous & has been severely con- 
demned by the press throughout Europe. Mr. Perkins was staying at 
a Hotel in which they killed the landlord & a waiter that was waiting on 
them at tsbte k #«s w» the greatest diflSculty he mtd Ms own & the 
lives of the Ladies that were with him they lost all of their baggage 
& everything of value even to their waches. he has applied to the 
Government for redress which I suppose he will get 

The Government here would not last a day if it was not for the 
French troops as far as I can learn the people are universaly in favour 
of a change, the good old Pope " is much beloved but the Cardinals & 
Priests are hated 

From the best of my knowledge all the facfe tfe«t I can g«ti»er there is 
no people that I have met on \«^om religion has sudi a shallow hold In 
fact I have not yet found one bit of what might be called a true religious 
sentiment among them no place were I have been were the church has 
so small a speritual hold upon the people this no doubt would astonish 
people who have never lived in Rome but it is a fact as far as I am 
able to judge &e temporal power is still weaker than the Speritual. 
this Government could not hold its place a ^n§le hour if Foreign tti@(^ 
were removed I dont believe ttiat fllis Governfnent could count on a 
single man except the Swiss of which their are about three thousand But 
as I have said before there is no danger of a disturbance as long as the 
French remain & they will continue here without there is a break between 
the Governments, which is not a tal likely. The Roman troops are 
deserting almost daily & going to the seat of war. Many tiioas«nd 
citizens have gone also to fight for Italian freedom Success has crowned 
tla Rfeficfa arms iii eveiy istra^e. . . , There is nothing new in tSie 
way of art. Most of the pantets have left town & some of the Sculp- 
tors in fact they are all gone but about a dozen & they only stay because 
they have no money to get away. Some have gone to the mountains 
around Rome & others to the country to spend the summer & some have 
gone home to live. Among the Americans gone or agoing home this 
summer are Thomson " Witheridge Braun i» & Nicols.^" Painter 

Probably Charles C. Perkins, 1823-1886, art critic of Boston. This happened 

in Perugia. 

" Pius IX, 1792-1878. 

^' Possibly Ceaphas G. Thompson, 1809-1888, portrait and figure painter, or 
Alfred Wordsworth Thompson, 1840-1896, of Baltimore. 

^'Thomas Worthington Whittredge, 1820-1910, landscape and figure painter. 
" Probably George Loring Brown, 1814-1889, portrait and landscape painter. 
Possibly Edward W. Nichols, 1819-1871, portrait painter. 


Page ^'^ has gone to England weather to stay or not he does not know 
among the sculptors Ives will go home on a visit & Mosier perhaps 
to stay. With out there is some new ones coming their will not be a 
large crowd here next winter in fact tho I don't think their will be many 
strangers here if the war continues. 

In about two weeks I will have completed another little figuif l^m^l^et 
to remain & work it is not the custom but I will try it 

Perhaps I will get out about a week to take some baths. About three 
months ago I wrote to Mr. Walters ^* sending him a photograph of 
Alberts figure ^° & a draft on him for half of the money & about two or 
three weeks later I wrote again sending him drafts on those persons for 
whom I HaKte Ac busts but up to this time I have not heard a Word 
from him. I am afraid he has written & the letter miscarried. I wish 
you would see him imediately on recept of this & inquire wether he has 
sent any or not it seems strange that I have not had a word from him 
for six months I will write him again as soon as this figure is finished 

iTdofS truly 

'Wm. H Rinehart 

Remember me to all & kick Alfred & Lewis for not writing I will 

write to McDowell soon 

Tell Walters perhaps it would be safer to send by the other mail during 
the war 

Rome Decem 7th 1859 

Dear Friend 

I received a letter from you last week & of course was glad to be so 
highly favoured for I begin to think that between pleasant excursions 
Ladies & painting you had forgotten me intirely I am now fairly set- 
tled here in Rome I hope for a wile & have been working hard for 
some time I have modeled a bust of Mr. Stone ^' I am pretty well 
advanced with Alberts figure of the Indian will send you a photograph 
when it is done. There are very few American painters here at present 

Chapman 2° Page Braun landscape painter Witteridge also Thomson 
portrait & Williams everyday life make up the list as far as I know. 

William Page, 1811-1885, portrait and figure painter. 
"Chauncey Bradley Ives, 1810-1894, a popular sculptor. 

"Joseph Mozier, 1812-1870, sculptor; the Peabody Institute owns his head of 

'''William T. Walters, 1820-1894, financier, art collector and philanthropist of 

" Probably the Indian Girl. 

"Alfred May®:, 1836-1897, of Baltimore; distinguished ^^mckt and author; 
for many years pferessor at Lehigh University and at Stevens Imtitett-of Technoolgy. 
"'Lewis Mayer, 1833-1886, of Baltimore; lawyer and authrar. 
^'Edward McDowell, 1837-1913, of Baltifiaore; amateur painter; he married 

Beata Mayer. 
" Unidentified. 

John Gadsby Chapman, 1808-1890, portrait and historical painter. 



Cranch came here last week there are a few others that I have not 
seen Chapman I have not yet had the pleasure of meeting. Page is 
painting another venus which promises to be wonderfully fine his stile 
is pecular his own & consists in glazing one thin coat over an other an 
indefinite number of times, he seems to be successful with it but no 
one else has as far as I can learn, the fact of the business is this that 
Page is rather an extraordinary man & would be successful with a most 
any stile. 

Braun & Witheridge are both very good landscape painters I am not 
much astonished to find but few painters here when Paris offers so much 
finer field for study there are a great many fine pictures here in Rome 
but they are so scattered a-bout that it takes so much -ftner to see 
In Paris they are all concentrated nearby in one place besides modern 
painting is so far ahead of any other place I have seen. In Sentiment 
perhaps the Germans are a head of the French but that is not so much 
what a young man wants in facts he has nor ought to have that in him 
but he wants stile which is to be found in Paris only in perfection I 
am asked my advice about what would be best for you I say go to Paris 
as JOOn as you can. Make up your Mini io live there at I'cast two yesrs 
9c you will make such progress that you never dreamed of Paris so far 
as I can ascertain is to the Painter what Rome is to the sculptor Traveling 
and seeing all kinds of art in the world is servisable very servisable. But 
hard study were one has ail the facilities is a hundred fold better If you 
live the life as student $500. 00 will keep you a year I should very 
much like you to come here but I know that Paris is a much better place 
for a Painter. 

I think it is high time that American artists should do something 
that would not only please the people at home & bring money into 
their pockets but they should do such work as would command the 
admiration of European artist. Such with one or two exceptions has not 
yet been the case. We have a few lights that have broken through the 
mist but they are very few. Besides the splendid examples continually 
inviting us to study & labour the spur of criticism is continually being 
bored into us & were is the horse however sperited that will not almost 
double his effort when the spir is applied. A man must be dead indeed 
who suffers himself to lag behind when he can do more who for instance 
could lay in bead when such men as Overbeck ^2 Gibson & others over 
sixty years of age are up by day break eating their breakfast late could 
leave his things go half finished when any young man that comes in 
criticizes it. 

But enough of this Rome is beginning to fill up with strangers but they 
will be later this season on account (rf the Carnival coming later. 

The wether has he^ ff^ wrt kat. isf btsm kmi. imt me spell of cold 
which was very cefel foe Mmee ism -Stlf 'dSter-e urm ^^b^ a snow storm 
something unusual it is now quite warm as our September wether. So 

John Cranch, 1807-1891, portrait painter. 

Johann Frederich Overbeck, 1789-1869, noted German painter. 

John Gfljson, 1790-1866, noted Ei^lish sculptor. 

WM. H. MNEHmr's Lirmm to mumk b. mayer 135 

far I am not much pleased with the Roman nor their climate they are 
greater thiefs than the Florentine. However everybody who has lived 
here some time likes it & I suppose I will too after awile The avantages 
for study here are much better than Florence if it was not for that I 
would not stay among the great swarm of sculptors a small potato like 
myself is lost intirely. Give my best love to Alfered & Lewis. Remember 
me kindly to your Father Mother & sister '* My pious regards to Walteis 
McDowell Miller** Har%*« & all who in quire aftag«g» fmnietd mr th« 

I wish if you see McCoy you would ask him if he received a letter 
I wrote him? Write soon & direct care of Pakenham, Hooker & G).,'* 

P. S. Should you see Dr. Cox tel him I wrote him a letter from 
Florence but have had no answer say to McDowell that I received his 
letters & will answer them after a little while I wrote to him from 
Florence which is strange he did not get I also wrote to him from Rome 
a few weeks since which I suppose he has before this. 

I t^we writtten him three letters since I left home I would very much 
1^ "^ i piw «)f tody with you both. 

Most truly 
and sincerely your friend 

Wm. H. Rinehart 

Rome Dec. 9th 1859 

My dear Frank 

k has been such a long time since I heard I begin to think that perhaps 
I owe you a letter but I have honestly been thinking all along that you 
were my debtor. If the neglect has been on my part I must beg your 
pardon for I have been thinking all along that I had written last & have 
been anxiously waiting for an answer to my last. But let that be as it 
may I have not heard a word from or of you for a very long time. So 
long that I forget what your last letter contained. Were have you been 
& what a deiag at «fe you coming on to this old country. Now 

that I have commencoi to Write I dont know what in the Devil to write 
about every thing is st Ml is it e«n possible be m Itmaae i^w^im^lj 
in the art world, there is no new CQmm>^-0mm Mmti %^ h*d 

" Eliza Mayer, born 1844. 

Alfred J. Miller, 1810-1874, portrait and landscape painter, particularly noted 
for his studies of Indians made on a western trip with Captain William Dtununond- 
Stewart in 1836. 

"James K. Harley, 1828-lW, ftctist of Bt^oKwe. 

" John W. McCoy, 1821-1889, of BdtSmwe, a man of business and patron of 
contemporary artists. During the Civil War he successfully operated iron mines 
in North Carolina. He was a Trustee and benefactor of The Peabody Institute 
and Johns Hopkins University, where the new college has been named for him. 

" Bankers used by many Americans and English. 

" Probably Dr. E. Cover Cox, 1820-1883, of Uniontown and Baltimore, a popu- 
lar physiciMi «»d member of many fraternal ord«!S. 



not been a single new artist English or American this winter which is 
very unusual.*" Visitors are also scarce particularly buyers I am very 
much mistaken if the artist dont have another hard winter of it & if so 
I think there will be more of them leave next spring. There are but 
few painters here now & some of them are starving & would leave 
imediately but canot on account a their debts. Lets see we have 
Chapman Page Williams *^ Tilten " Ropes <» & Monteban " about isM 
of them are very hard up but it is not only Americans that are suffering 
but all nations to tell you the truth I think most of the Americans would 
do better almost anywhere else. Rome is not the place for painters to 
locate, it is very well for them to spend a winter here but not settle 
down. Rome is essentialy the home for the sculptor, here he is sur- 
rounded with a crowd of sculpture, both ancient & modern, he has 
marble models & workmen at his command, there is almost everything 
to make it both attractive & interesting for him. I find it impossible 
to scrape up any art news. Rodgers has just finished the last figure for 
the Richmond monument, it is very clever. Ives is in America Hart of 
Florence will leave in a few days for the States after an absence of some 
eight years. Chapman has not yet returned but is expected in a day or 
two peris^ you met him. Page is now painting a large picture of Aaron 
& soDsdboay else holding up to hands of Moses it promises well. I have 
just finished a group of sleeping dMism im Sson.** I sent Walters a 
Photograph of them. 

Yesterday I commenced his statue of the Woman of Samaria from a 
new sketch I will have the sketch Photographed & send him one next 
week As I can find nothing new to write about I hope you will excuse 
this short letter & write me a good long one in return to make up for 
the shortness of mine. I y®a *© -t&e -fte teeifcle & kick Alfted & 
Lewis for not writing to me. Remember me kindly to the two 
rascals & Charles ** & your Father, Mother Aunt ife ^rttrs & everybody 
else you may chance to meet who ai^H sie & if any young ladies ask 
give them my best love. 

There is an old Friend of you Father here spending the winter a Judge 
Lyons*' from New Orleans he is a good fellow. 

Wm H. Rindiart 

*" There was panic in America from feax of European war; outbreak of hostili- 
Ses between Austria and the allies, France and Sardinia; mnA in England Disraeli's 
R^orm Bill was under discussion. 

"Probably John I. Williams, 1813- d. after 1850, a pxwteait and panorama 
painter, or Isaac Williams, 1817-1895, portrait and Umiimp6 painter. 

" John Rollin Tilten, 1828-1888. 

"Joseph Ropes, 1812-1885, painter in pastel. 

" unidentified. 

" Hugh Sisson, 1820-1895, of Baltimore. Proprietor «f (me of first and best 
equipped steam marble works in the country; a pioneer in the use of Maryland 
i^^arries from whence went material for the Washington Monument and the 
United States Capitol. Mr. Sisson was one of Rinehart's early patrons and com- 
missioned the first of the Sleeping Children, and also busts of himself and his wife. 

" Charles Frederick Mayer, 1832-1878, an officer in the United States Navy 
•«4io saw service in the Civil War and afterwards worked as an engineer in Brazil. 

*' (X Bayou Sara, Louisiana. 


Rome July 12 18^ 

My dear Mayer 

I suppose you think I have intirely forgotten you but that is not the 
fact. I have been intending every week to write to you. I was glad to 
learn from your last letter that you were agetting along so well & also 
that Alfered had a situation worthy of his talent. I can assure you dear 
friend that nothing gives me greater pleasure than the prosperity of your 
family. Your brother Alfered is a young man of extraordinary talent & 
an amount of earnestness & industry that is sure to meet its reward. 
Baltimore has but few men with so much talent. I was glad to learn 
to of the rapid progress of art in Baltimore & of the success of the 
Alsten Academy from your letter.** I should suppose much had been 
done to ptorrioti!; (he genetal interest of art since I left. I long to be 
with you again to see how things are agoing. I have not heard a word 
from Washington for a long time. What has become of him. You 
never mention coming on to Europe anymore have you give it up. do not 
defer it until it is too late if you can find a rich wife that you like take 
her but if canot do that come to Europe as soon as you can at least to 
Paris Your friend George Ljicas & Frank Frick *^ were here a few 
weeks ago but muSe s s£)rt sttf . Mismt fm kste ttse^ a sa^di afo 
stayed aboirt ^ days were he k now I do tioit know. 

There has been some oflier Baltimoreans here lately but they were 
strangers to me & I do not remember their names. Every thing is as 

dead & dull as the D 1 in Rome now. Of course nearly all the 

Artists have left for cooler quarters. I am still kept diging away & do 
not know weather I will get away during the hot weather, no it is 
d hot just now & I begin to feel a Iktle weak but my general 

"An anonymous correspondent of the Baltimore Sun (Supplement) for Novem- 
ber 5, 1881, in an article on " Art and Artists in Baltimore," wrote: " The Allston 
Association, of which I Was one of the older members, was, I believe, first started 
by the efforts of Rinehart, A. J. H. Way, F. B. Mayer and James K. Harley. The 
preliminary meeting for its organization was held at the Academy of Letters, on 
Mulberry Street, and was attended by many leading citizens, the greater part of 
whom were much interested and took an active share in the proceedings. The 
Association at first proved a great success. Its membership was large, and com- 
posed of the very best material, and for some years it did good service in the 
promotion of art feeling and in the development of a true taste for what was 
artistic and good, both in music and painting. This state of affairs. was not destined, 
however, to continue. Gradually it drifted into a mere eating club, the object for 
which it was started being totally lost sight of." 

*' William D. Washington, genre and landscape painter. 
George Lucas, of Baltimore and Paris, who died there in 1910 at the age of 
eighty-five, after a residence of over fifty years. (It is said that he was so sea- 
sick on the voyage over that he would never undertake a return one!) A collector, 
critic and connoisseur, he made his house the center for tfaveHing Aamksais 
whom he introduced to the art and artists of the time; he was the real "dis- 
coverer " of Antokie Loais Batye, 1796-1875, Ae -^mH sci^ter and painter of 
animals. Mr. Lucas' diaries arc owfied by Tnie Pemmy Ttestitate. 

" Frank Frick, 1828-1910, of Baltimore, a traveller and a great patron of music; 
he may be said to have introduced chamber music to Baltimore; his papers belong 
to The Peabody Institute and also his collection of scores. 

1-3S MARYi^D MrntoKm^ mttmzmM 

health is good. I am still modeling Mr. Walters figure & if I donot 
finish it this month I will next. During the winter I modeled five busts 
& got a commission for a six hundred dollar figure which was not so 
bad. What kind of a winter next will be no one can tell. I feel we 
are here right upon the top of a Political volcano which might bsMSt 
out any day although every thing is quiet. ... 

Widi the heat & hard work I am almost tired to death so you must 
excuse me for my short letter 

Remember me to you Father Mother & the rest of the family treat 
Lewis to a sherry cobler & charge it to me Remember me also to your 
uncle Brantz My love to Ned Mc D. Harley Miller & others take good 
elite ei fm s^ mm m^^tltUbimmomlly cSifmmM-Ma^ 

Wm H. lUnehart 

F B Mayer 

Whrt a sleepy state I am in yoa mt^ fa^P from this letter. 

(To he C0ntmmd) 

? The Woman of Samaria, now at The Walters Art Gallery. 

•mmwm of recent books 

Virginia's Mother Church and the Political Conditions under Which It 
Grew. By George MacLaren Brydon, D. D. Richmond: Virginia 
Mtolerical Society, 1947. 571 pp. $7.50. 

Virginias Mother Church is a most valuable and significant contribu- 
tion to the history of the Church of England in the Virginia Colony. The 
title is arresting and Dr. George MacLaren 'Bnfdosx tells us in the AuthM's 
Preface why it is so named. 

" The title, " Virginia's Mother Church ' has been chosen as being the 
most accurate description of the condition which existed throughout the 
whole period under consideraticMi. The Church of England was the only 
^f^H^Smi HMd wH^iem^ WtM dF religion which ministered throughout 
the whole colony all the time. The only other body with any notable 
strength were the Quakers, who first began coming into the colony during 
the period of the Commonwealth, and who continued to grow throughout 
the rest of the period. There had been a number of Puritans in the 
colony during the time of the civil wars in England, but these had gone. 
The Baptists and the Presbyterians were just making the first beginnings 
as the period came to a close. Throughout the whole period, the spiritual 
cafe and religious instruction of the people of Virginia were almost 
entirely in the hands of the Church which had come with the first settlers, 
and which had grown and spread fmr} passu with At ^lowth and expan- 
sion of the colony itself." 

The sub-title, " An Interpretation of the Records of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia and of the Anglican Church of That Colony 1607-1727," is an 
accurate description of the volume. Interpretation it is, and that by a 
most careful and competent historian. Dr. Brydon is perhaps more 
familiar with the records of the early days of the Church of England in 
Virginia than any other living person. His knowledge, however, is not 
that of a mere specialist who has confined himself to a restricted and 
limited field. Rather is the knowledge set against a vast background, and 
related to the entire life of the Colony. As one reads the story of the 
planting and growth of the Church of England during the years of the 
first century of its life in Virginia, he becomes conscious of the fact that 
he is readily not merely the history of that Church, but that history in 
the irfrae fife of a people growing into natiodM^wl m a fidi hmA. 
It is the story of the Churdi, of course, but al<Mig with that atoiy is cwie 




of the establishment of a Colony of the Mother Land, developing her own 
representative Government. Many hitherto widely held ideas are shown 
to be erroneous. For example, the idea that the founding of the Virginia 
Colony was done by men fleeing from laws which they felt to be unjust, 
is shown to be incorrect. Dr. Brydon deals conclusively with this in his 
chapter on " Conditions in the Mother Country." He sums it up in a 
few sentences in his introduction when he says: 

" The men who founded Virginia were not fleeing from laws that they 
felt to be unjust. They planned to establish and develop in Virginia a 
full and well-rounded life as they had lived it at home, leaving behind 
them nothing of English ways except her ecclesiastical courts and repres- 
sive laws. Naturally they expected trade and the amassing of wealth for 
themselves and for the members and stockholders of the Virginia Com- 
pany who had made the venture possible. They made the abortive begin- 
nings of ventures in manufacturing: glass, iron, silk, cordage. They 
brought their religion, as the soul of their race, and never from the 
beginning was there any idea that their forms of worship should be any 
other than those of the Church of England, their own Mother Church. 
They brought their national ways and customs, their ideals of educa- 
tion and culture, and strove for these &ir^ in spite of every adverse 

Another widely held and oft-repeated idea is that Virginia was under 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. The author makes what seems 
to be a perfectly good case, showing that the Colony never was, in a tech- 
nical sense, a part of the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. The 
volume is rich in statistics, but it is never tedious; it is crowded with 
details, but these are so deftly and skillfully handled and so interestingly 
woven into the story, that cme is itware only oi the movement and develop- 
ment of a people's life. 

In addition to his careful scholarship, Dr. Brydon is blessed with the 
ability to describe and interpret his material in language that is both lucid 
and arresting. The language is so carefully chosen, and the style so 
limpid that the story seems to tell itself. The historic personages move 
across the stage, and one comes to know them and to enter in their life 
and feel something of their emotion. 

Virginia's Mother Church is an altogether worthwhile volume both for 
the careful historian and also for the casual reader, who would know 
something of the origin and development of what we are pleased to call 
today. The American Way of Life. Dr. Brydon has rendered a con- 
j^cuous and lasting service in the preparation of this most interesting 

Noble C. Powell, D. D. 

REvmws Of immm: wmoKM 


The Philadelphia-Baltimore Trade Rivalry, 1 780-1860. By James "Weston 
LiviNCSOOD. Hartisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Cxxa- 
mission, 1947. 195 pp. $1.00. 

There are two remarkable things about this excellent book: first, that 
it considers an important economic relationship between two neighboring 
cities and their hinterlands ; and second, that it was published througji the 
generosity of a public agency, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum 
Commission. Both aspects of the book ate gratifying and encouraging to 
those who wish to see sound historical progress in the analysis of the 
development of the Middle Atlantic region. Probably the history of no 
section of the country is so little known and so poorly described as that 
of the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland area, an inte- 
grated economic and cultural region of the United States. Too often 
historians have ignored the obvious fact that political boundaries are little 
more than barriers to the natural interchange of trade and ideas between 
similar groups of people. In fact, we are proud in America that our state 
boundaries require no passports, invoke no tariffs, and mark no special 
religious, racial and language areas. Why then should the historian assume 
that state boundaries have any great significance in the general patterns of 
history? Rather than glorify the fictitious distinctions between one state — 
or city — and another, Sie historian should endeavor to explain the natural 
interrelationships and acculturation between places and peoples. Dr. 
Livingood and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission de- 
serve the highest praise, the one for writing such an histoiy, the otter 
for possessing the vision and courage in publishing it. 

The general theme of the book revolves about the curious geography of 
the Susquehanna river valley. Although lying almost wholly in Penn- 
sylvania, the river disgorges into Maryland. Moreover, mounbiin barriers 
prevented easy trafiic between Philadelphia and the valley in the early days, 
while the river served as a great highway from lower New York state and 
central Pennsylvania to Baltimore — Baltimore becoming the natural ter- 
minus of the river in the days before efficient overland transportation. 
Quite naturally the Philadelphia merchants strove to overcome this natural 
advantage of Baltimore, and thus the story runs through the promotion 
of turnpikes, canals and railroads, through selfish restrictive laws which 
hurt both Pennsylvania and Maryland, and despite all, through the evolu- 
tion of a profitable and useful commerce which enriched both. 

Fully realizing that the book is avowedly concerned with economic mat- 
ters and that as a pioneer study it does not pretend to be comprehensive, I 
would like to mildly question its preoccupation with only one phase of 
history. Just as it is unreal to discuss the history of one state without 
reference to its important neighbors, so also does it lack reality to discuss 
economic history without reference to social, cultural and political history. 
For instance. Dr. Livingood mentions once that many people had come to 
Baltimore from the Susquehanna valley to take up commerce, but he does 
not follow, up thas extremely suggestive line of thought and its possible 




effect on commercial relations. The fact is that some of the greatest 
Baltimore merchants — the Smiths, Calhouns, Ellicotts and others — ^were 
from Lancaster county, and it is not a far guess to believe that they had 
strong family connections in Pennsylvania which smoothed and perpetuated 
their trade with the valley long after it may have been better suited to 
Philadelphia. Habit and reputation play important parts in business rela- 
tions. But I have no desire to quarrel with the author for it is not his 
fault that no adequate study has yet been made of early Baltimore history. 
The material is voluminous and easily obtained at the Maryland Historical 
Society and elsewhere — ^but where are the students? Rather, we must 
thank Dr. Livingood for his valuable contribution to the knowledge of 
our city in its proper perspective relationship with its neighbor and rival, 

The Commission has given a valuable precedent to Maryland and Balti- 
more 2i^lisfili^F^^f^g^g^'^i4^ fcrikwed 

Wilbur H. Hunter, Jr. 

The First Captain: The Story of John Paul Jones. By Gerald W. John- 
son. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1947. 312 pp. $3.50. 

" He was a gaudy fellow," Mr. Johnson begins his book — ^and so sets 
its tempo. He gives us the story of our first authentic naval hero (but 
was he the first captain.'), who lashed his Bon Homme Richard to the 
British Serapis, kept the pumps going, and said, when somebody asked if 
he had struck his flag, "' Struck, sir? No, I have just begun to fight! " 

He was a gaudy fellow, and not just in time of battle. There are, as 
Shand remarked to the countess, few more impressive sights in the world 
than a Scotsman on the make. It is absorbing to follow the career and 
adventures that took John Paul, later calling himself Jones, halfway around 
the world. He was lionized at the Court of France, and they liked him, 
too, at the Court of Catherine the Great; but his native country indicted 
him for murder and the country of his adoption, these United States, 
blocked him and checked him at every turn. He wanted — far more than 
he wanted just to beat the Turks or the British — to build a great Navy 
that would be a peacetime implement as well as a weapon of war. But 
it was many years after his death that we began to realize he had estab- 
lished the Navy's standards for morale and study and manners and diplo- 
macy, as well as for courage in tight places, and that he had said some- 
thing else to naval oflScers coming along, "... in doing my utmost, I am 
sensible that I have done no more than my duty." 

Mr. Johnson writes, as always, interestingly and well, with the warm 
enthusiasm for his subject that makes subjects come alive. He is not 
always a logician, some historical judgments are superficial, and people 
who did not appreciate die cM)tain are often sharply dealt with. Theit 
politics are " swinish*** -^iltf Gouveneur Morris (for instance)^ li 

most incredible ass that ever brayed his way to a dubious immortality in 
American history." John Paul Jones could have used such a partisan in 
his lifetime. 

This is the first Jones biography in many years. Writing it, Mr. John- 
son has been handicapped by the scarcity of primary-source material and 
by the unreliability of earlier biographies. He himself makes the most 
valid criticism of his own book when he says, of the subject, "... Mahan 
himself cannot explain him. Admiral and raw recruit alike can only 
wonder and admire. 

" Nor will any prudent biographer undertake to do more. John Paul 
Jones was the captain in the United States Navy who said, ' I have just 
begun to fight' when all the world was certain that he was already 
whipped. When all is said and done, that is the story, mi |# Hps m$ 
is mere elaboration of the great central fact." 

ItLsN Mmr ^irm 

The American Language: Supplement II. By H. L. Mencken. New 
York: Knopf, 1948. 890 pp. $7.50. 

When, in 1936, the fourth edition of The American Language ap- 
peared, the average reader might well have felt that the author, havii^ 
completed that monumental work, had earned the right to descend to less 
strenuous efforts, or even to cease from labor and enter upon the con- 
templative life. Not so Mr. Mencken. Without waiting for the ink to 
dry on the fourth edition, he returned to the task, published Supplement I, 
and has now completed Supplement II, a formidable volume of nearly 
900 pages. 

There is a statement in the preface to the effect that although volumin- 
ous notes remain unpublished, no further supplements are contemplated. 
We shall see. In the preface also, Mr. Mencken, with characteristic 
modesty, denies any claim to profundity, preferring to be regarded as a 
journalist interested in language. That Supplement II, like the former 
volumes, is good reporting, readable, concise, clear, and accurate, is unde- 
niable, but there is also abundant evidence of the profound scholarship 
which the author disclaims. 

Supplement II brings up to date chapters VII through XI of The 
American Language. The new material contains the results of further 
studies in the history of the language, and a summary of the developments 
of the last twelve years, including those which have resulted from World 
War II and its attendant phenomena. Much of the material is straight 
reporting, in which further data is brought to bear upon topics treated 
in The American Language. There are also, however, commentaries on 
such matters as the futile striving of " peewee pedants " to preserve the 
language, like an embryo, in the formaldehyde of school textbooks, render- 
ing it as dead as Classical Latin or Gothic, and the persistent but ineffec- 
tual efforts of the apostles of simplified spelling. Scholarship is not a 
prerequisite to the enjoyment of the book. It is good reading. In the 



chapter on proper names, lists which combine the pathetic and the ludicrous 
are presented as manifestations of the national culture. The brief dis- 
cussion of place names prompts the hope that the author will give his 
readers further benefit of his obviously extensive knowledge of the sub- 
ject, especially as it pertains to Maryland. Another good section is that 
dealing with the vivid argot employed in various trades, sports, etc. A 
comprehensive index and a " List of Words and Phrases " contribute to 
ease in using the book. This volume is a fitting companion to its prede- 
cessors, and is, like them, an indispensable part of the library of every one 
interested in our langua^. 

W. Bird Terwiluger 

Twelfth Annual Report of the Archivist of the Hall of Records. By 
MpRRis L. Radocf. J>mmi^^^: {HftU of Eecoc^ Cxmimrnksa}, 
1^47. 51 pp. 

To those who are already cognizant of rapid increase in the size of its 
collections and noteworthy improvement in both facilities and service, the 
Maryland Hall of Records needs neither apologist nor propagandist. For 
those who are unfamiliar with its affairs or wish to note recent changes 
and acquisitions, however, this latest " progress report " will prove an 
illuminating exposition of its varied activities, ranging from problems of 
staff and budget to those of repair, photocopying, and research. 

Two subjects treated in this report are especially important to those 
engaged in research in Maryland history: accessions from public and 
private sources for the fiscal year 1946-47 and a new section entitled 
" Extent and Character of Services Rendered." The latter contains a brief 
explanation of the types of service performed by the Hall of Records 
staff together with comment on those types it is unable at present to per- 
fwm. In the interest of proper utilization of these archives this constitutes 
a welcome statement of policy. 

John Ralph Lambert, Jr. 

A Catalogue of the Work of William Henry Rinehart, Maryland Sculptor, 
1825-1874. By Marvin Chauncey Ross and Anna Wells 
Rutledge, with a Foreword by Douglas H. Gordon. Baltimore: 
The Peabody Institute and The Walters Art Gallery [1948]. 74 pp., 
48 plates. Cloth $6.10, paper $3.85. 

A Catalogue of the Work of William Henry Rinehart, Maryland Sculp- 
tor, 1825-1874, which was published at the time of the opening. May 17, 
1948, of the Rinehart Exhibition at the Walters Art Gallery, is not only 
an important contribution to the history of Maryland art, but also serves 
as a guide to the exhibition itself. This scholarly record of Rinehart's 
work by Marvin Ross of the Walters and Anna Wells Rutledge of the 
Peabody Institute is published by the Peabody and the Walters which 


organized jointly the current exhibition of Rinehart's sculpture. In this 
catalogue will be found a complete and fully annotated list of all the 
work of Rinehart which he is known to have executed as well as descrip- 
tive notes on his sculpture which the authors have traced. It is illus- 
trated with forty-eight well-executed plates, showing nearly a hundred 
examples of his work. Many of these are on exhibition. 

The commanding position of Rinehart as a mid-nineteenth century 
American sculptor requires no comment here. It seems fitting that' recog- 
nition, even though belated, of Rinehart's talents be accorded by the 
Peabody Institute and the Walters Art Gallery. Both institutions have a 
traditional association with him. It was due to William T. Walters, the 
founder of the Art Gallery that Rinehart's artistic abilities were first dis- 
covered, and it was through aid given him by Walters that he was sent 
to Italy to study sculpture. The Peabody Institute is the trustee of the 
fund which Rinetetrt left fm the e^ cg i jlte |||. atriaitfons yoang ^dw^ 
of sculpture. 

J. H. P. 

Descendants of Virginia Calverts. Compiled by Ella Foy O'Gorman. 
[Los Angeles: the Author], 1947. 766 pp. $10.00. 

This monumental compilation relating to the descendants of Leonard 
Calvert, first Governor of Maryland, includes not only records of undis- 
puted authenticity but also a wide range of more or less traditional ma- 
terial. The author has wisely gathered all the information she could find, 
even though not susceptible of proof. Utilizing family records collected 
40 years ago by a cousin, the book embraces also the results of a study of 
some 20 years by the author. Since no descendants of Leonard Calvert at* 
believed to live today in Maryland, the great majority of them being scat- 
tered through the near and far West, the book is perhaps of less interest 
to Maryland than might be expected. The results, however, of her 
thorough sweep place all future searchers in Mrs. O'Gorman's debt. 

Descendants of Maryland's first Governor, of course, trace their pedi- 
grees through his grandchildren who settled in Stafford and Prince William 
Counties, Va. The author has followed the migrations of their offspring 
into Kentucky, South Carolina, Missouri, Ohio, West Virginia, Arkansas, 
Illinois, Tennessee, Texas and other states. "The book is well organized 
and supplied with an excellent index. (It may be ordered from the 
author, Care J. Walter Thompson Co., 535 Griswold Street, Detroit 
26, Mkh.). 

James W. Foster 

Ye Fountain Inn Diary. By Matthew Page Andrews. Niw l^^E-;, 
Richard R. Smith, 1948. 112 pp. $2.50. 

This pleasant account of the visits of George Washington, John Adams, 
Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and other celebrities, to Baltimore was 
prepared by Dr. Matthew Page Andrews, shortly before his death in 1947. 



It serves to memorialize the unusual historical associations of the site of 
the present Southern Hotel, site also of the Carrollton Hotel, 1872-1904, 
and prior to that of the Fountain Inn. The book has been brought out 
by the hotel company, of which Mr. A. J. Fink is president, in celebration 
of the 175th anniversary of the opening of the original Inn. Q)pies were 
presented to guests at the banquet held Mi Washington's birthday, 1948, 
and are being offered for sale. 

The South During Reconstruction, 1863-1877. By E. Merton Coulter. 
(A History of the South, edited by Wendell Holmes Stephenson 
and E. Merton Coulter, Vol. VIII.) Baton Romgii teWlMfi State 
University Press, 1947. xii, 426 pp. $5.00. 

This is a revisionist study, scholarly and well written. In his preface, 
the author declares that students of the period " until recently have let 
the reconstruction processes crowd out of their narratives everyday de- 
velopments in the lives of the people." He contends that only in stress- 
ing social history does his work lay claim to have revised older treat- 
ments of the Southern Reconstruction period " ; and he concludes by 
warning that, since he has chosen to work in the ' ' atmosphere and spirit 
of the times," he should not be condemned for having refused to measure 
the South during Reconstruction by " mid-twentieth century standards." 

Professor Coulter failed to heed his own warning in the body of his 
text, and he can hardly expect anyone else to do so. The historian is 
primarily interested in the past because knowledge thereof is of value in 
shaping present day opinion and in making decisions on current economic, 
social, and political problems. The author has judged the South by a 
single set of mid-twentieth century standards. His interpretation will be 
applauded by men who concur with Congressman John Rankin and Gov- 
ernor James Folsom In their attitude toward the Negro question, the 
South, and the nation. So far as the study is read and believed in the 
South, it will further the revolt against the Democratic party and President 
Truman's Qvil Rights program. 

To this end, the author has submerged contrary facts and points of 
view. Yet, he is too honest a scholar to have blacked them out altogether. 
Even in the South of the Reconstruction period there were honest Radical 
Republicans, Negro and white, who did constructive work. One curious 
example will suffice. Members of the Radical constituent assemblies, says 
Professor Coulter (pp. 133-135), were fraudently selected. They "put 
the stamp of the North upon most of the constitutions which were made " ; 
most of these law makers were " dishonest," " truculent," " loud talking," 
"could not read," and "took orders explicitly from their Carpetbagger 
mentors." Their end products, none the less, " turned out much better 
than the Southerners had ever hoped for; in fact, some of them were 
kept for many years i^M ^Sm^0tm whites again ^ •m^mi ei Hmn 
governments." ' . - . 

Princeton University 

Jeter A. Isely 


Colonists in Bondage. White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 
1601 -md. By Abbot Emerson Smith. Chapel Hill: Published 
for the Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williams- 
burgh, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1947. 
viii, 435 pp. $5.00. 

Under the arresting title. Colonists in Bondage, the author treats the 
topic of white servitude in the whole of British North America from 
Jamestown to Independence. Beginning in Part I with a useful account 
of the trade in servants, he explores the European conditions of the sub- 
ject. Against the " controlling factors " of the trade — the colonial de- 
mand for labor and the profits from transporting both indentured ser- 
vants and redemptioners — he reviews such special topics as the problems 
of raising a cargo, propaganda to encourage emigration, practices of re- 
cruiting agents, and the institution of controls to protect unwilling persons 
from illegal transportation. Part II, the longest in the book, deals with 
penal servitude under three principal headings: the transportation of con- 
victs, of rogues and vagabcwids, and of political and military prisoners. 
The concluding secb'on. Part Illi is an account of the servant in the 
plantations from his arrival, through his servitude, to his achievement of 

The underlying research of this Volume covered the dozen years follow- 
ing the author's first work on the subject as a Rhodes scholar in 1930. As 
with other scholarly projects. World War II and service in the armed 
forces compelled a delay in its final revision and publication. During tlie 
gestation period of the book, however, the author contributed two notable 
articles to the literature of his subject {^American Historical Review, 
XXXIX and XL) . 

Professor Smith does greatest service to our colonial history in the 
thorough treatment of the European, particularly the British, aspects of 
servitude. Previous studies have attempted to cover only fragments of 
the area or brief episodes. His generalizations deserve careful attention 
because of the more complete evidence presented here. Without discount- 
ing poverty at home as a motive for seeking a fuller opportunity overseas, 
the author offers a more refined theory. Recurrent emigration crazes, 
which swept waves of moderately prosperous persons to the colonies, 
neither satisfied the demand for settlers nor provided the constant stream 
desired (pp. 45 ff.). "It was the problem of the colonial proprietor, the 
merchant, seamen, or emigrant agent to draw recruits from the great 
reservoir of population which existed in poverty at home, to persuade or 
encourage men to sign up as servants, to induce perhaps a local attack 
of emigration fever in some German town, and to raise a cargo of laborers 
and settlers for the colonies " (p. 52). The story has been carefully and 
convincingly reconstructed from a wealth of materials in the Pvtlk 
Record Office, judicial records, public archives and family papers. 

mtmsK>mm»mmtkm has hem ^wmtmm^s^'^idmi- 



gated for partioilar colonies by McG)rmic, Ballagh, Bassett, and Herrick 
to whom indebtedness is acknowledged. New materials from the author's 
researches are presented, without significant modification of previous views, 
in Part 111 which rounds out the treatment of the subject and brings 
together the best monographic material cemented with the author's 

This volume should find special welcome among Marylanders. The 
provincial economy, law, land system (before 1683), and public finance 
were intimately tied up with the white bondsmen who formed a significant 
part of the labor force during their servitude and who provided a stream 
of independent farmers and artisans when freed. In time some rose into 
the ranks of the provincial squirearchy. Daniel Dulany, distinguished 
lawyer and man of affairs, began his career in Maryland under indenture. 
Into the labor force of the colony Maryland received considerable numbers 
of all tj^es of bondsmen: indentured servants, redemptioners, political 
and military prisoners, and convicts — these last in spite of protests and 
strenuous opposition. 

A compilation of available statistics on white servants entering the 
colonies, a critical biWi^ri^y, *nd an index enhance the usefulness of 
this volume. 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 

Thomas Jefferson Among the Arts. By Eleanor Davidson Berman. 
Introduction by Horace M. Kallen. New York: Philosophical 
Society [1947}. xviii, 305 pp. $3.75. 

Henry Adams's well known opinion that Jefferson could not be de- 
scribed in a parenthesis but rather would require a description fashioned 

touch by touch, with a fine pencil " (Adams, History, I, 277) is amply 
borne out by Doctor Berman's Thomas Jefferson Among the Arts. 

There is much of the " touch by touch " and enough of the fine 
pencil " in the author's treatment of the subject to show how great our 
debt of gratitude is to Jefferson, who approached the arts " with an honest 
heart and a knowing head " (p. 213). Clearly portrayed is the Jefferson 
who longed to improve the artistic taste of his countrymen, knew Euro- 
pean art trends, and gave his allegiance to Palladian classicism in archi- 
tecture and to democratic and naturalistic styles in the pictorial, plastic, 
musical, and literary arts. The reader senses Jefferson's unending enthu- 
siasm in bringing art into the service of his country. It was his belief 
that art was useful in providing outlets for accumulations of wealth, over- 
coming the ennui of old age, strengthening the mind, and enriching life. 
He was convinced that art could lead toward freedom and freedom toward 

It is disappointing that with its many merits Doctor Berman's book, 
nevertheless, suffers from several defects. The organization of the ma- 
imA much of its hmmmk. '^mmmm t&pe^i^mm mi a 



profusion of quotations, especially fe©m secondary works, frequently 
interrupt the flow of thought. The historian will bridle at the descrip- 
tion of Jefferson as the penman of the Revolution " (p. 229), for both 
his contemporaries and posterity have commonly accorded John Dickinson 
that designation (Tyler, Literary History of American Revolution, II, 24) . 
Moreover, no explanation nor justification for the author's statement can 
be found in the source given in her footnote. 

In spite of its shortcomings, the book fulfills its purpose of enabling 
the reader to see JeflFerson among the arts and to appreciate how valuable 
be was in that rSle to his country and to mankind. 

Norman H. Dawes 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 

Gilman Walls Will Echo: The Story of the Gtlman Country School, 
1897-1947. By Bradford M<i. Jacobs. Baltimore: [Gilman 
School], 1947, 131 pp. 

This book is close to the ideal of what a history of a preparatory school 
should be. Mr. Jacobs has taken his task seriously, but has written with 
contagious enthusiasm and lightness of touch. He has sought to tell 
what has made the institution tick. With a firm grasp on the essentials 
of management and finance, he has traced in fluent prose the major de- 
velopments from the somewhat casual start in 1897, when a group of 
women led by Mrs. Frances King Carey determined to promote a boy's 
school in the country. There is appropriate emphasis on the accomplish- 
ments, and sometimes shortcomings, of the eight successive headmasters. 
The story of the school is presented essentially in terms of administration, 
surely the appropriate point of view. Alumni may feel that student 
activities have been slighted now and then, but the full story of athletic 
literary, dramatic and social events could not have been given without 
greatly expanding the book. As it is, all these phases come in for brief 

The institution and the author are to be commended for completion of 
the M%y(H|ile jitteactiTie^i^ft^ttt ftlfeh it is contained. 

James W. Foster 

The Dixie Frontier, a Social History of the Southern Frontier from the 
First Transmontane Beginnings to the Civil War. By Everett Dick. 
New York: Knopf, 1948. 374, [xxvi] pp. $4.50. 

This colorful social study of a cultural region emphasizes the common 
everyday experiences of a pioneer pec^le whose characteristics were modi- 
fied by a harsh and coarse environment. Although these characteristics 
are presented as distinctly southern, they are treated as typically frontier 
phenomena and there is no contrast to show how the southern reaction 



The " Dixie frontier " is defined as an area which had for its core the 
present states of Kentucky and Tennessee, and the book is a valuable 
contribution to the knowledge of this part of the Upper South. The 
contiguous territory, less intensively covered by the author, consists of a 
small portion of southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois; all of Missouri and 
Arkansas; northern Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama; western Georgia; 
and northern Florida. A remarkable uniformity is implied for the area, 
from southern Illinois to northern Florida. 

The cultural traits are presented topically in a series of short chapters 
which cover a great variety of subject matter. Frontier agriculture, educa- 
tion, speech, customs, dress, sports, religion, methods of travel and types 
of amusement are all vividly portrayed. Many excerpts from extensive 
manuscripts sources are effectively used to give a first-hand impression of 
the region. 

The whole era from the arrival of the earliest trappers to the advent of 
the Civil War is considered a period of crudity and physical discomfort. 
However, if the rural South is deglamorized, it is given in return a more 
realistic charm of its own in terms easily recognizable in survivals in the 
area tocky ia architecture, aistoim, manners, and speech. 

Jean E. Keith 

The Johns Hopkins University 

The Diary of James T. Ayers, Civil War Recruiter. Edited with an intro- 
duction by John Hope Frankun. (Occasional Publications of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, {No. 50}). Springfield, Illinois: 
1947. XXV, 138 pp. 

A Methodist lay preacher from Illinois, James T. Ayers, enlisted in 
the Union Army in 1862. In December, 1863, he was appointed special 
recruiter of Negro troops in the occupied portions of Alabama and Ten- 
nessee. At this time he began a diary, which continued until May, 1865. 

The diary might have brought new light on this Union attempt to use 
the freed slaves but it does not fulfill that hope. There is far too little 
of Ayers' career as an agent and too much of his confused emotionalism. 
More information on his reauiting efforts and fewer of his pathetic 
literary and oratorical efforts might have made his diary a revealing case 
history. In the final analysis, Ayers was temperamentally incapable of 
reporting events reliably, particularly those in which he participated. 

The residual value of the diary is limited to its incidental picture of 
wartime conditions. Ayers was disturbed by the contradictions of Army 
policy and the apathy of the Negroes. Ultimately he resigned in disgust; 
his early concern for the ex-slaves as human beings had so weakened 
under growing exasperation that he forgot them and became simply a 
narrow, vindictive flag waver. This partisan obsession seems suggestive 
of a widespread disintegration of popular idealism during the course of 
the war. 


Since Ayers wrote with little regard for spelling and punctuation, Dr. 
Franklin has made minor editorial changes in the text for the sake of 
clarity, without sacrificing its appealing authenticity. His consultation of 
source materials has provided helpful annotations and an evidence of 
critical scholarship for this minor vignette of a period of tension and 

GvsTAVVs G. Williamson, Jr. 

The Johns Hopkins University 

Commodore Thomas Truxton, 1755-1822. By Eugene S. Ferguson. 
Philadelphia: The Free Library of Philadelphia, 1947. 31 pp. 

Thomas Truxton, the first commander of the U. S. F. Constellation, was 
more than just a naval officer. He was, in addition, a Qiina trader in 
his early years and a somewhat " idle gentlemian " in his later life. This 
pamphlet is a brief description of the letters written by Truxton to Charles 
Biddle of Philadelphia which are now in the possession of the Free 
Library of Philadelphia. The letters, previously unpublished, furnish new 
materials on Truxtun's personal life and in particular his reactions to 
world events after his retirement from the Navy. Of interest to Mary- 
landers is his somewhat contemptuous remark that Betsey Patterson should 
marry the son of Sir Charles Oakly for " to be the wife of a man of such 
connections is more honourable than a Dutchess and Mistress to Jerome. 
..." The Free Library of Philadelphia is to be commended for 
making available even this brief description of Truxtun's letters. It will, 
indeed, be a treat to read Mr. Ferguson's full-length biography <rf 
Truxtun when it becomes available. 

Frank F. White, Jr. 

Casimk Pulaski. By Wladyslaw Konopczynski. Translated from 
Polish by Irena Makarewicz. (Annals of the Polish R. C. Union, 
Archives and Museum, Vol. XI). Chicago: Polish Roman Catholic 
Umkm wf AEBSMica, 1947. f^S*} pp. 3® «a^. 

Since the banner of the Pulaski Legion is one of the most cherished 
possessions of the Maryland Historical Society, Marylanders cannot be 
indifferent to the biography of the Legion's organizer, Casimir Pulaski. 
This pamphlet explains and evaluates Pulaski's efforts to secure both Polish 
and American independence. To Americans, says Professor Konopzynski, 
Pulaski is to be remembered as " the Father of American Cavalry," 
while Poles and Americans alike cannot forget his beliefs in " freedom, 
the republic, and independence." The author's statement that the Sisters 
at Bethlehem gave the Legion its banner can be disproven (p. 52). 
Richard H. Spencer writing on the "Role of Pulaski's Legion," in the 
Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. XIII, says that the banner was pre- 
sented to the Legion by the patriotic women of Baltimore. Nevertheless, 
the publication of this biography of Pulaski oiis ^ntk^ to the oad 
for a more adequate treatment of his life. 

F. F. W. 



Pages from the Story of an Ancient Parish: Sketch of St. Aloy sins' Parts h, 
Leonardtown, Maryland. By Edward A. Ryan, S. J. Foreword by 
Louis A. Wheeler, S. J. Leonardtown, 1947. 31 pp. 

This booklet was published for the centennial of the building of St. 
Aloysius' Catholic Church, Leonardtown. It recounts not only the re- 
ligious history of the parish but also its social and economic history as 
weU. Although brief, the story is important since the parish is located 
in one of the predominantly Catholic counties in the United States and in 
the region where English-speaking Catholics " fir* learned to live as 
Catholics and Americans." 

F. F. W. 

Bulletin of the Historical Society of Carroll County, Maryland. Theodore 
M. Whitfield, Thwnas F. Marshall, and Samuel M. Jenness, Editorial 
Committee. Westminster, Md.: Carroll County Historical Society, 
Vol. I, No. 1, April, 1948. 54 pp. |1.00. 

The publication of a new historical journal is always a welcome occa- 
sion. Especially so, when it is a Maryland journal since one of the 
purposes of the Maryland Historical Society is to encourage historical 
activities throughout the State. This particular journal has for its stated 
aims the preservation of the history of Carroll County and the awakening 
of increased interest in the past. 

The editors have brought out a very commendable first issue. The 
cover immediately attracts attention and the type used makes it a pleasure 
to read. Although the one article has been previously published, the 
editors are to be congratulated for their encouragement of local talent and 
the publication of an account of the very beginnings of the county. The 
editors neglected to tell us how often to expect their publication. Other- 
wise, their job is well done. 

F. F. W. 

Backward Glances at Georgetown, with Anecdotes of Famous Washing- 
tonians and their Georgetown Homes. By Josephine Davis Leary. 
Richmond, Va.: Dietz Press, 1947. (Copyright by the author). 
68 pp. $2.00. 

This book has the merit of being exactly what the title professes it to 
be. Undoubtedly the contemporaries of the writer and their children will 
wish for more detail and a wider horizon. The way of life has so changed 
that all such records have become particularly valuable. 

The style is concise and readable; the illustrations interesting and sug- 
gestive; but the lack of captions is to be regretted. The format of the 
book has the excellence we have come to expect of those quasi-historical 
volumes that have a Richmond, Va., imprint. 

Lucy Leigh Bowie 


Parker Genealogical Award 

The prize for the best compilation of family pedigrees submitted during 
the year 1947 for the Dudrea and Sumner Parker Award, established in 
1946 by Mrs. Parker, has been given to Mrs. Faith S. Daskam of Wash- 
ington, D. C, for her work, " Reese-Lee and Allied Families of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland." This is a manuscript of 329 pages, to which 
an excellent index has been added. It embraces also the lines of Evans, 
Maulsby, Rhodes, Atkinson, Croasdale, Smith and Tomlinson families. 
The judges were Mr. William B. Marye, Chairman, Mrs. Thomas S. 
George and Miss Louise E. Magruder. 

Since this contribution was outstanding in comprehensiveness and or- 
ganization, the judges voted unanimously to award but one prize. The 
cash value for the 1947 contest amounted to $25.00 and chedc for this 
amount has been sent to Mrs. Daskam. 

Other entries in the contest were as follows: Gunnell line of Virginia, 
Gunnell-Broadwater -Hunter families, of Virginia; Estep lines, of Mary- 
land, Virginia, and North Carolina; and Slewart, TrCTillian, Custis 
Fooks, of Maryland and Virginia. 

The 1948 contest will close on Dec. 31st. Manuscript compilations 
submitted should be typed and clearly marked with names of entrants. 
Preference will be given to papers concerned with Maryland families. 
Fullness will be considered. As previously announced, the awards for 
1948 have a total value of $50. 

Historical Essay Contest — ^To stimulate interest in the American Colo- 
nial period, its family and community life and its great event and figures, 
the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of New York offers a cash award 
of $250 for the best essay on a subject connected with that period. The 
Contest will be open to any citizen of the United States who submits to the 
Society an essay conforming to the following conditions: 1. Essays must 
be based upon documents, records, manuscripts, or other material, not 
hitherto published, and shall relate to a phase of the American Colonial 
period between the founding of Jamestown, Virginia, May 13, 1607, and 
the Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775. 2. Each essay submitted shall 
contain, as a supplement, a list of the material used, citing volume and 
page where possible, with the names and addresses of the persons or 
organizations having custody of such material. 3. All essays receiving 




with the right to publish thm in its diiCJetion. 4. Each essay submitted 
must be typewritten or printed. An essay previously used, or expected 
to be used, for a college or high school course theme, or Doctor's or 
Master's thesis, may be submitted. In general, 5,000 words will be con- 
sidered adequate treatment, but this limit is not a controlling condition. 
5. The G)ntest will close December 31, 1948. For further in|s^g^on 

Messmore Kendall, 
122 E, 58th St., New York 22, N. Y. 

Vincent — Can any one tell me the name of the mother or grandmother 
of William Barton Vincent, who was born in Port Tdjacco, Md., June 
21, 1806? 

He claimed that he was a direct descendant of one of Lafayette's fol- 
lowers. He was raised by his aunts or great aunts Hungerford. They 
were the children of Barton and Jane Warren Hungerford. All his chil- 
dren by his first wife were named for these people. Thomas Warren, 
Mary Jane Hungerford and Sarah Warren, but my Grandmother was 
named Maria Jones Vincent. The one thing he could remember most in 
his childhood was standing on the porch of his aunts' home and watching 
the British warships come up the Potmnac in the war of 1812. 

Mary C. Clark, 
827 E St., S. E., Washing 4 B|» Q, 

Griffin — Wanted: information regarding the parentage of Robert Burns 
Griffin of Baltimore, wholesale boot and shoe merchant. Born 5 Dec. 
1810, (at Bade River Lower Hundred?) ; m. Elizabeth Hayes of Baltimore, 
7 Nov. 1833, M. E. Church; d. 3 April 1879; buried Greenmount. For 
11 chil. 1834-58, see Maryland Historical md General Bulletin, July 1947, 
and Jan. 1948. W^ he sod of Pfai W| ' jlM ll '^ i li m » W<i. -<i.Ma^iaf4) ? 

R. G. Smith, 
704 S. Ari. Mill Dr., Arlington, Va. 

Correction — '" Lieut.-Col. Sayer" referred to in Washington's General 
Orders, Sept. l6, 1776, mentioned on p. 19, Maryland Historical Maga- 
zine for March, 1948, is evidently intended for Lieut.-Col. Henry Shryock, 
officer of the 1st Battalion, Maryland Flying Camp. See James McSherry, 
History of Maryland (1852), Appendix B, p. 382 — ^Lucy Leigh Bowie.